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The rapid decrease of a response to a persistent stimulus, often termed desensitization, is a widespread biological phenomenon. Signal transduction by numerous G protein-coupled receptors appears to be terminated by a strikingly uniform two-step mechanism, most extensively characterized for the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR), m2 muscarinic cholinergic(More)
The phenomenon of acute desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors has been associated with several events, including receptor phosphorylation, loss of high affinity agonist binding, receptor:G-protein uncoupling, and receptor internalization. However, the biochemical events underlying these processes are not fully understood, and their contributions to(More)
Multiple mechanisms exist to control the signaling and density of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPRs). Upon agonist binding and receptor activation, a series of reactions participate in the turn off or desensitization of GPRs. Many GPRs are phosphorylated by protein kinases and consequently uncoupled from G proteins. In addition, many GPRs are sequestered(More)
Recent studies have identified agonist-dependent phosphorylation as a critical event in the rapid uncoupling of the m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChR) from G-proteins and sequestration of the receptors away from the cell surface. However, mutant m2 mAChRs were identified that were phosphorylated but unable to desensitize in adenylyl cyclase assays,(More)
Short term exposure of m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (m2 mAChRs) to agonist causes a rapid phosphorylation of the activated receptors, followed by a profound loss in the ability of the m2 mAChR to activate its signaling pathways. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to identify two clusters of Ser/Thr residues in the third intracellular loop of(More)
To understand what processes contribute to the agonist-induced internalization of subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, we analyzed the role of arrestins. Whereas the m2 mAChR has been shown to undergo augmented internalization when arrestins 2 and 3 are overexpressed (Pals-Rylaarsdam, R., Gurevich, V. V., Lee, K. B., Ptasienski, J. A., Benovic,(More)
Desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involves the binding of members of the family of arrestins to the receptors. In the model system involving the visual GPCR rhodopsin, activation and phosphorylation of rhodopsin is thought to convert arrestin from a low to high affinity binding state. Phosphorylation of the M(2) muscarinic acetylcholine(More)
We report a novel mutant of the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in a case of familial Leydig cell hypoplasia and pseudohermaphrotidism. The proband was homozygous for two missense mutations, T1121C and C1175T, causing substitutions I374T and T3921. The molecular effects of the mutations were investigated by heterologous expression of the WT LHR, the(More)
If there's inheritance of traits from parents to children, or from " mother cell " to " daughter cells " in mitosis, then some thing must be passed from parent to child. We know today that this thing is DNA, in the form of chromosomes. However, someone needed to fi gure that out! In the 1930s and 1940s, scientists were very interested in identifying the(More)
Multiple events are associated with the regulation of signaling by the M2 muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). Desensitization of the attenuation of adenylyl cyclase by the M2 mAChRs appears to involve agonist-dependent phosphorylation of M2 mAChRs by G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) that phosphorylate the receptors in a serine/threonine rich(More)