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The APOBEC3 restriction factors are a family of deoxycytidine deaminases that are able to suppress replication of viruses with a single-stranded DNA intermediate by inducing mutagenesis and functional inactivation of the virus. Of the seven human APOBEC3 enzymes, only APOBEC3-D, -F, -G, and -H appear relevant to restriction of HIV-1 in CD4+ T cells and will(More)
APOBEC3G is a retroviral restriction factor that can inhibit the replication of human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) in the absence of the viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein. Virion-encapsidated APOBEC3G can deaminate cytosine to uracil in viral (-)DNA, which leads to hypermutation and inactivation of the provirus. APOBEC3G catalyzes these(More)
The APOBEC3 deoxycytidine deaminase family functions as host restriction factors that can block replication of Vif (virus infectivity factor) deficient HIV-1 virions to differing degrees by deaminating cytosines to uracils in single-stranded (-)HIV-1 DNA. Upon replication of the (-)DNA to (+)DNA, the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase incorporates adenines(More)
  • D Frohman-Bentchkowksy, M Lenzlinger, +20 authors R P Love
  • 2002
Microwave generation in a NEgative Zesistance Field-Effect Transistor (NERFET) is reported for the first time. This device is based on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure which exhibits negative differential resistance due to a transfer of hot-electrons out of a source-drain channel and into a conducting substrate. In an untuned microwave circuit at 77 K, the(More)
Cytosine mutations within TCA/T motifs are common in cancer. A likely cause is the DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B). However, A3B-null breast tumours still have this mutational bias. Here we show that APOBEC3H haplotype I (A3H-I) provides a likely solution to this paradox. A3B-null tumours with this mutational bias have at least one copy of A3H-I(More)
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