Robin Nicholas Beech

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Resistance to ivermectin and related drugs is an increasing problem for parasite control. The mechanism of ivermectin resistance in nematode parasites is currently unknown. Some P-glycoproteins and multidrug resistance proteins have been found to act as membrane transporters which pump drugs from the cell. A disruption of the mdrla gene, which encodes a(More)
Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of livestock is a serious problem worldwide. Ivermectin, an avermectin, and moxidectin, a milbemycin, are potent endectocides commonly used to control these parasites. The proposed mode of action of avermectins and possibly the milbemycins involves the binding of the drug to the alpha-subunit of a(More)
The small ruminant parasite Haemonchus contortus is the most widely used parasitic nematode in drug discovery, vaccine development and anthelmintic resistance research. Its remarkable propensity to develop resistance threatens the viability of the sheep industry in many regions of the world and provides a cautionary example of the effect of mass drug(More)
Resistance to anthelmintics that are used to control parasite populations in domestic animals has become a serious problem worldwide. The development of resistance is an evolutionary process that leads to genetic changes in parasite populations in response to drug exposure. The anthelmintic ivermectin is known to bind to the human membrane transport(More)
The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) brings together researchers worldwide, with a focus of advancing knowledge of resistance and providing information on detection methods and treatment strategies. Advances in this field suggest mechanisms and features of resistance that are shared among different classes of anthelmintic.(More)
Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) are the proposed site of action for macrocyclic lactone anthelminthics such as ivermectin (IVM) and the milbemycins such as moxidectin (MOX). The importance of this interaction between macrocyclic lactones and GluCls is strengthened by the recent genetic evidence that GluCls are involved in IVM and MOX resistance(More)
OBJECTIVES The molecular mechanisms of levamisole (LEV) activity and expression of resistance remain largely unknown in parasitic nematodes. In contrast, genetic screens for mutants that survive exposure to LEV in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have led to the identification of five genes (unc-38, unc-63, unc-29, lev-1 and lev-8) that(More)
Two alleles of the HG1 gene, which encodes a putative GABA receptor alpha/gamma subunit, were isolated from Haemonchus contortus. These two alleles were shown previously to be associated with ivermectin susceptibility (HG1A) and resistance (HG1E), respectively. Sequence analysis indicates that they differ in four amino acids. To explore the functional(More)
Benzimidazole anthelmintics are the most common chemotherapeutic agents used to remove intestinal helminths from farm animals. The development of drug resistance within helminth populations is wide-spread and can render these drugs essentially useless. The mechanism of benzimidazole resistance appears to be common to many species ranging from fungi to(More)