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Two alleles of the HG1 gene, which encodes a putative GABA receptor alpha/gamma subunit, were isolated from Haemonchus contortus. These two alleles were shown previously to be associated with ivermectin susceptibility (HG1A) and resistance (HG1E), respectively. Sequence analysis indicates that they differ in four amino acids. To explore the functional(More)
Levamisole and pyrantel are old (1965) but useful anthelmintics that selectively activate nematode acetylcholine ion channel receptors; they are used to treat roundworm infections in humans and animals. Interest in their actions has surged, giving rise to new knowledge and technical advances, including an ability to reconstitute receptors that reveal more(More)
BACKGROUND The purposes of the present study were morphometric characterization of rostellar hooks of Taenia multiceps and to investigate the association of hook length variation and the variability within two mitochondrial genes of sheep isolates of the parasite. METHODS Up to 4500 sheep brains were examined for the presence of C. cerebralis. Biometric(More)
The small ruminant parasite Haemonchus contortus is the most widely used parasitic nematode in drug discovery, vaccine development and anthelmintic resistance research. Its remarkable propensity to develop resistance threatens the viability of the sheep industry in many regions of the world and provides a cautionary example of the effect of mass drug(More)
Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) mediate fast ionotropic neurotransmission. They are proven drug targets in nematodes and arthropods, but are poorly characterized in flatworms. In this study, we characterized the anion-selective, non-acetylcholine-gated Cys-loop LGICs from Schistosoma mansoni. Full-length cDNAs were obtained for SmGluCl-1(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Type A receptors are inhibitory chloride channels in membranes of vertebrate and invertebrate neuromuscular cells. Gating of the channels by GABA leads to an influx of chloride ions into, and hyperpolarisation of, the cell. GABA receptors are believed to form channels by the association of five protein molecules of varying(More)
Ion channels are targets for many drugs including insecticides and anthelminthic agents such as ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX). IVM has been shown to activate glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) from the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Haemonchus contortus is a parasitic nematode that is also extremely sensitive to IVM. The high(More)
Monepantel is a member of the recently identified class of anthelmintics known as the amino-acetonitrile derivatives (AADs). Monepantel controls all major gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep including those that are resistant to the classical anthelmintics. Previous studies have shown that the Caenorhabditis elegans acr-23 and the Haemonchus contortus(More)
Mycoparasitism by antagonistic fungi involves changes in the biochemistry and physiology of both partners. Analysis of genes that are expressed during mycoparasite-host interaction represents a powerful strategy to obtain insight into the molecular events underlying these changes. The aim of this study is to identify genes whose expression is upregulated(More)
Anthelmintic resistance in parasitic nematodes of livestock is a chronic problem in many parts of the world. Benzimidazoles are effective, broad-spectrum anthelmintics that bind to and selectively depolymerise microtubules. Resistance to the benzimidazoles, however, developed quickly and is caused by genetic changes in genes encoding beta-tubulins, subunits(More)