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A novel sequence discovered in a computational screen appears distantly related to the p35 subunit of IL-12. This factor, which we term p19, shows no biological activity by itself; instead, it combines with the p40 subunit of IL-12 to form a novel, biologically active, composite cytokine, which we term IL-23. Activated dendritic cells secrete detectable(More)
Amyloid beta protein (A beta) is a 40-43 amino acid peptide that is associated with plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's patients and is cytotoxic to cultured neurons. Using both primary central nervous system cultures and clonal cell lines, it is shown that a number of anti-oxidants protect cells from A beta toxicity, suggesting that at least one pathway(More)
We have characterized a cytokine produced by Th2 cells, designated as IL-25. Infusion of mice with IL-25 induced IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 gene expression. The induction of these cytokines resulted in Th2-like responses marked by increased serum IgE, IgG(1), and IgA levels, blood eosinophilia, and pathological changes in the lungs and digestive tract that(More)
Germinal center (GC) dark and light zones segregate cells undergoing somatic hypermutation and antigen-driven selection, respectively, yet the factors guiding this organization are unknown. We report here that GC organization was absent from mice deficient in the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Centroblasts had high expression of CXCR4 and GC B cells migrated(More)
Th cell access to primary B cell follicles is dependent on CXCR5. However, whether CXCR5 induction on T cells is sufficient in determining their follicular positioning has been unclear. In this study, we find that transgenic CXCR5 overexpression is not sufficient to promote follicular entry of naive T cells unless the counterbalancing influence of CCR7(More)
beta-Amyloid protein (A beta) is a member of a small group of proteins that accumulate as amyloid deposits in various tissues. It has recently been demonstrated that the toxicity of A beta toward some neural cells is caused by oxidative damage. Since all of the amyloid diseases are characterized by protein deposited in the antiparallel beta-sheet(More)
Peripheral autoantigen binding B cells are poorly competitive with naive B cells for survival and undergo rapid cell death. However, in monoclonal Ig-transgenic mice lacking competitor B cells, autoantigen binding B cells can survive for extended periods. The basis for competitive elimination of autoantigen binding B cells has been unknown. Here we(More)
IL-10-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice develop chronic enterocolitis mediated by CD4+ Th1 cells producing IFN-gamma. Because IL-12 can promote Th1 development and IFN-gamma production, the ability of neutralizing anti-IL-12 mAb to modulate colitis in IL-10(-/-) mice was investigated. Anti-IL-12 mAb treatment completely prevented disease development in young(More)
Here we discuss the application of the zebrafish as a relatively new model host for the study of mycobacterial pathogenesis. Recent advances in our understanding of host-mycobacteria interactions from the zebrafish include insights into the role of the innate immune system in both controlling and facilitating infection. Analysis in the zebrafish has(More)