Robin L. Hammond

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To induce fatigue resistance in the latissimus dorsi muscle of the dog in preparation for possible myocardial assistance, eight adult male beagles underwent unilateral electrical stimulation of the thoracodorsal nerve at a frequency of 2 Hz (120 stimuli/min) and 10 Hz (600 stimuli/min) for a 6-week period. The conditioned muscles were compared with their(More)
Latissimus dorsi skeletal muscle ventricles were constructed in six beagles. They first underwent a period of vascular delay and of electrical preconditioning over several weeks. The skeletal muscle ventricles were then connected to a totally implantable mock circulation that allowed for the chronic measurement of pressures and flows produced by the muscle.(More)
The bioenergetic correlates of skeletal muscle fatigue were assessed in vivo with phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy. After surgical construction of latissimus dorsi muscle ventricles, seven beagles underwent 31P-NMR spectroscopy during 12-min exercise protocols at 25- and 85-Hz stimulation frequencies and during both(More)
Utilization of skeletal muscle as a myocardial substitute requires it to undergo two major modifications: mobilization to the site of action and adaptation to continuous activity. We have examined the effects of collateral blood vessel ligation, which would accompany mobilization, on blood flow in control and electrically conditioned canine latissimus dorsi(More)
The latissimus dorsi muscles of six dogs were made fatigue resistant by chronic electrical conditioning. Once the muscles were conditioned, oxygen consumption was measured during periods of exercise. The ratio of the tension developed to oxygen consumed during moderate stimulation (300 msec on) for the control and the electrically conditioned muscles was(More)
Chronic stimulation converts skeletal muscle of mixed fiber type to a uniform muscle made up of type I, fatigue-resistant fibers. Here, the bioenergetic correlates of fatigue resistance in conditioned canine latissimus dorsi are assessed with in vivo phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy. After chronic electrical stimulation, five(More)
Skeletal muscle ventricles (SMVs) were constructed from canine latissimus dorsi and connected to a totally implantable mock circulation device. The SMVs, stimulated by an implantable pulse generator, pumped continuously for up to 8 weeks in free-running beagle dogs. Systolic pressures produced by the SMVs, initially of 139 +/- 7.2 mmHg and after 1 month of(More)
We have studied the fatigue rates of hydraulic pouches constructed in the form of a multilayered conical spiral using the latissimus dorsi muscle of 17 beagles. The roles that electrical muscle conditioning and early interruption of collateral blood supply have in the prevention of pouch fatigue were evaluated. The length of time that a pouch could generate(More)
The hemodynamic and respiratory effects of unilateral pneumothorax were studied during positive-pressure mechanical ventilation in five sheep. The sheep were anesthetized, intubated, and placed on mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (5 cm H2O). After baseline studies, including chest roentgenograms, were taken, increments of air(More)
Skeletal muscle has been rendered fatigue resistant by chronic stimulation and therefore has potential as an active substitute for damaged myocardium. It is therefore important to know whether stimulation produces any deleterious effects in the long term. Hemidiaphragm muscles of four dogs were examined after chronic stimulation for 1 yr at either 2 or 4(More)