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A retrospective review of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in 48 patients with intractable partial epilepsy was performed. Side effects were few and mild to moderate. Mean seizure frequency decreased by 26% after 1 year, 30% after 5 years, and 52% after 12 years with VNS treatment.
Electrographic recordings from depth and subdural electrodes, performed in two patients with seizures of mesial temporal origin, were analyzed for the presence of non-linearities in the signal. The correlation integral, a measure sensitive to a wide variety of non-linearities, was used for detection. Statistical significance was determined by comparison of(More)
Temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by episodic paroxysmal electrical discharges (ictal activity) originating in mesial structures of the temporal lobe. These discharges consist of organized synchronous activity of mesial temporal neurons, particularly those of the hippocampus. This activity is seen as rhythmic medium to high amplitude slow waves or(More)
Multiple studies have explored the relationship between MRI-based volumetric measurements of the hippocampus and amygdala, the degree of volumetric asymmetry of these structures, and symptom manifestation. However, considerable variability exists with regard to the reported volumetric values of these structures. The present study employed meta-analytic(More)
Language is lateralized to the left hemisphere in most individuals, and leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale has been reported in postmortem and imaging studies. In this study we measured the planum temporale on magnetic resonance imaging (MR) scans of patients (11 right-handers, 1 non-right-hander) who had selective hemispheric anesthesia or Wada(More)
Wernicke, and later Geschwind, posited that the critical lesion in conduction aphasia is in the dominant hemisphere's arcuate fasciculus. This white matter pathway was thought to connect the anterior language production areas with the posterior language areas that contain auditory memories of words (a phonological lexicon). Alternatively, conduction aphasia(More)
Emotions may be classified into two major divisions: experience and behavior. Because the brain is critical for mediating emotional experience and behavior, diseases of the brain may induce changes in emotional behavior and experience. Disorders of almost all portions of the cerebral hemisphere, including the cortex, limbic system, and basal ganglia, have(More)
CONTEXT Anterior temporal lobectomy is an effective treatment for medically intractable temporal lobe seizures. Identification of seizure focus is essential to surgical success. OBJECTIVE To examine the usefulness of presurgical electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neuropsychological data in the lateralization of seizure(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the personal neglect hypothesis of anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP) using selective anesthesia of the right hemisphere. BACKGROUND Although AHP most commonly follows right-hemisphere injury, the mechanism responsible for this hemispheric asymmetry has not been entirely elucidated. Because denial of ownership of parts on the(More)
BACKGROUND Scalp EEG localization of epileptic foci may be obscured by electromyographic (EMG) artifact produced by ictal contraction of cranial muscles. Injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) into frontotemporal scalp muscles reduces EMG activity. Initial scalp video-EEG monitoring in three patients suggested partial seizures, but definitive(More)