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More sensitive assays for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA are needed to detect, quantify, and characterize persistent viremia in patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy and whose plasma HIV-1 RNA levels are suppressed to less than 50 to 75 copies/ml. We therefore developed an internally controlled real-time reverse(More)
A human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) derivative (HIV(NL-DT5R)) containing sequences encoding a 7-amino-acid segment of CA and the entire vif gene from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) was previously shown to establish spreading infections in cultured macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To assess its replicative and disease-inducing(More)
When human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins were expressed in 293 cells by using a recombinant adenovirus expression vector, the envelope precursor (gp160) was initially glycosylated by cotranslational addition of N-linked high-mannose oligosaccharide units to the protein backbone and then cleaved to gp120 and gp41. The subunits gp120(More)
Current antiretroviral therapy is effective in suppressing but not eliminating HIV-1 infection. Understanding the source of viral persistence is essential for developing strategies to eradicate HIV-1 infection. We therefore investigated the level of plasma HIV-1 RNA in patients with viremia suppressed to less than 50-75 copies/ml on standard protease(More)
To investigate the extent to which drug resistance mutations are missed by standard genotyping methods, we analyzed the same plasma samples from 26 patients with suspected multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by using a newly developed single-genome sequencing technique and compared it to standard genotype analysis. Plasma samples were(More)
HIV-1-infected long-term nonprogressors are a heterogeneous group of individuals with regard to immunologic and virologic markers of HIV-1 disease. CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has recently been identified as an important coreceptor for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. A mutant allele of CCR5 confers a high degree of resistance to HIV-1 infection in(More)
Experimental conditions affecting the successful propagation of HIV-1 from the plasma of seropositive individuals were examined. It was determined that whole blood samples collected with lithium heparin as the anticoagulant, immediate plasma separation, and immediate culturing were best suited for obtaining viable virus from plasma. Virus was isolated by(More)
IMPORTANCE The efficacy of directly acting antiviral agents in interferon-free regimens for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infections needs to be evaluated in different populations. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir with weight-based or low-dose ribavirin among a population with unfavorable treatment characteristics. (More)
Mucosal Th17 cells play an important role in maintaining gut epithelium integrity and thus prevent microbial translocation. Chronic HIV infection is characterized by mucosal Th17 cell depletion, microbial translocation and subsequent immune-activation, which remain elevated despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) correlating with increased mortality. However,(More)
BACKGROUND Limited knowledge exists on early HIV events that may inform preventive and therapeutic strategies. This study aims to characterize the earliest immunologic and virologic HIV events following infection and investigates the usage of a novel therapeutic strategy. METHODS AND FINDINGS We prospectively screened 24,430 subjects in Bangkok and(More)