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More sensitive assays for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA are needed to detect, quantify, and characterize persistent viremia in patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy and whose plasma HIV-1 RNA levels are suppressed to less than 50 to 75 copies/ml. We therefore developed an internally controlled real-time reverse(More)
Current antiretroviral therapy is effective in suppressing but not eliminating HIV-1 infection. Understanding the source of viral persistence is essential for developing strategies to eradicate HIV-1 infection. We therefore investigated the level of plasma HIV-1 RNA in patients with viremia suppressed to less than 50-75 copies/ml on standard protease(More)
We examined the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection on the turnover of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in 17 HIV-infected patients by 30 min in vivo pulse labeling with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The percentage of labeled CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes was initially higher in lymph nodes than in blood. Labeled cells equilibrated between the two(More)
BACKGROUND Limited knowledge exists on early HIV events that may inform preventive and therapeutic strategies. This study aims to characterize the earliest immunologic and virologic HIV events following infection and investigates the usage of a novel therapeutic strategy. METHODS AND FINDINGS We prospectively screened 24,430 subjects in Bangkok and(More)
CONTEXT While interleukin 2 (IL-2) is capable of inducing a marked expansion of the CD4 T-lymphocyte pool, limited data exist on whether IL-2 treatment can add significantly to the immunologic and virologic effects of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE To determine the rate and magnitude of CD4 cell recovery and viral suppression when using a(More)
IMPORTANCE The efficacy of directly acting antiviral agents in interferon-free regimens for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infections needs to be evaluated in different populations. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir with weight-based or low-dose ribavirin among a population with unfavorable treatment characteristics. (More)
Mucosal Th17 cells play an important role in maintaining gut epithelium integrity and thus prevent microbial translocation. Chronic HIV infection is characterized by mucosal Th17 cell depletion, microbial translocation and subsequent immune-activation, which remain elevated despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) correlating with increased mortality. However,(More)
The gut mucosa is an important site of HIV immunopathogenesis with severe depletion of CD4+ T cells occurring during acute infection. The effect of prolonged anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on cycling and restoration of T lymphocytes in the gut remains unclear. Colon and terminal ileal biopsies and peripheral blood samples were collected from viremic,(More)
BACKGROUND Routine viral load monitoring of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not affordable in most resource-limited settings. METHODS A cross-sectional study of 496 Ugandans established on ART was performed at the Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda. Adherence, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed for their relationship(More)
True long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs)/elite controllers (ECs) maintain durable control over HIV replication without antiretroviral therapy. Herein we describe 4 unique persons who were distinct from conventional LTNPs/ECs in that they had extraordinarily low HIV burdens and comparatively weak immune responses. As a group, typical LTNPs/ECs have(More)