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Neuropsychological approaches represent an important avenue for identifying susceptibility and resiliency factors relating to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms post-trauma. This review will summarize results from prospective longitudinal and retrospective cross-sectional studies investigating executive function(More)
CONTEXT Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with executive or attentional dysfunction and problems in emotion processing. However, it is unclear whether these two domains of dysfunction are related to common or distinct neurophysiological substrates. OBJECTIVE To examine the hypothesis that greater neuropsychological impairment in(More)
Animal approach-avoidance conflict paradigms have been used extensively to characterize effects of anxiolytic agents and probe neural circuitry related to anxiety. However, there are few behavioral approaches to measure conflict in human populations, limiting the translation of findings from animal conflict tasks to human clinical research. We developed a(More)
Pregabalin (PGB) has shown potential as an anxiolytic for treatment of generalized and social anxiety disorder. PGB binds to voltage-dependent calcium channels, leading to upregulation of GABA inhibitory activity and reduction in the release of various neurotransmitters. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that selective(More)
Computerized attention modification is a relatively new and empirically validated treatment approach for different types of anxiety disorders. However, its neural basis and processes involved are poorly understood. This study examined the effect of a one-time application of an attention modification program (AMP) on neural substrates underlying emotion(More)
Therapy for combat and accident-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been reported to influence amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) response during emotional processing. It is not yet understood how therapy influences different phases of emotional processing, and whether previous findings generalize to other PTSD populations. We(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is twice as prevalent in females as in males, but the possibility of sex differences in the cognitive sequellae of the disease has not been considered. In this study male patients with MS performed more poorly than female patients on tests of verbal and nonverbal memory, visuospatial construction, and on the Mini Mental State Exam(More)
Animal approach-avoidance conflict paradigms have been used extensively to operationalize anxiety, quantify the effects of anxiolytic agents, and probe the neural basis of fear and anxiety. Results from human neuroimaging studies support that a frontal-striatal-amygdala neural circuitry is important for approach-avoidance learning. However, the neural basis(More)
To compare the sensitivities for detecting cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and administration times of three brief batteries of neuropsychological tests, 64 patients with MS completed the Neuropsychological Screening Battery for Multiple Sclerosis (NPSBMS), the Screening Examination for Cognitive Impairment (SEFCI), and the(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure-based therapy for anxiety disorders is believed to operate on the basis of fear extinction. Studies have shown acute administration of D-cycloserine (DCS) enhances fear extinction in animals and facilitates exposure therapy in humans, but the neural mechanisms are not completely understood. To date, no study has examined neural effects(More)