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For much of the 20th century, the accumulation of a considerable amount of information about the processes of aging did not reveal the underlying mechanisms. Toward the end of that century, the biological basis for aging became very much clearer. It became apparent that the best strategy for animals' survival was to develop to an adult, but not to invest(More)
  • R Holliday
  • 1989
Calorie restriction results in an increased lifespan and reduced fecundity of rodents. In a natural environment the availability of food will vary greatly. It is suggested that Darwinian fitness will be increased if animals cease breeding during periods of food deprivation and invest saved resources in maintenance of the adult body, or soma. This would(More)
The biological reasons for ageing are now well known, so it is no longer an unsolved problem in biology. Furthermore, there is only one science of ageing, which is continually advancing. The significance and importance of the mutations that lengthen the lifespan of invertebrates can be assessed only in relationship to previous well-established studies of(More)
During the evolution of hominids, the population could be sustained even with an expectation of life at birth of less than 20 years. Under these circumstances very few individuals reached old age. In these hunter-gatherer communities, altruistic behaviour was encouraged because it increased the likelihood of survival, whereas self-interest did not. An early(More)
In the modulation of longevity by natural selection there is a trade-off between the investment of resources in the maintenance of the body, or soma, and the investment in reproduction. There is accumulating evidence that long-lived mammalian species have much more efficient maintenance than short-lived ones. It is also clear that short-lived ground-living(More)
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