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For much of the 20th century, the accumulation of a considerable amount of information about the processes of aging did not reveal the underlying mechanisms. Toward the end of that century, the biological basis for aging became very much clearer. It became apparent that the best strategy for animals' survival was to develop to an adult, but not to invest(More)
Human diploid fibroblasts growth normally in medium containing physiological concentrations of the naturally occurring dipeptide carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine). These concentrations are cytotoxic to transformed and neoplastic cells lines in modified Eagle medium (MEM), whereas these cells grow vigorously in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM)(More)
Calorie restriction results in an increased lifespan and reduced fecundity of rodents. In a natural environment the availability of food will vary greatly. It is suggested that Darwinian fitness will be increased if animals cease breeding during periods of food deprivation and invest saved resources in maintenance of the adult body, or soma. This would(More)
The biological reasons for ageing are now well known, so it is no longer an unsolved problem in biology. Furthermore, there is only one science of ageing, which is continually advancing. The significance and importance of the mutations that lengthen the lifespan of invertebrates can be assessed only in relationship to previous well-established studies of(More)
It has often been asserted that the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953 was the starting point for molecular biology. Whether or not this is true, it cannot be doubted that Francis Crick became a dominant figure in the early years of molecular biology. In those years there was a continual interaction between theory and experiment, in which Crick paid(More)
Research on ageing was carried out in the Genetics Division laboratories, Mill Hill, London, from 1970 to 1990, resulting in more than 100 publications. The work centred around the in vitro ageing of human diploid fibroblasts, but there was also research on transformed cells, rat and mouse tissues, human lymphocytes, chick cells, mice and a microbial model(More)
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