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Electrification in developed countries has progressively increased the mean level of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) to which populations are exposed; these humanmade fields are substantially above the naturally occurring ambient electric and magnetic fields of approximately 10(-4) Vm(-1) and approximately 10(-13) T, respectively.(More)
The requirement for neovascularisation to permit the development of solid tumours beyond a threshold size, has focused attention on the therapeutic potential of agents that prevent angiogenesis. The multistep nature of angiogenesis presents several targets for intervention, including the inhibition of the endothelial-cell migration or proliferation normally(More)
The transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) cytokines are a multi-functional family that exert a wide variety of effects on both normal and transformed mammalian cells. The secretion and activation of TGFbetas is regulated by their association with latency-associated proteins and latent TGFbeta binding proteins (LTBPs). Over the past few years, three(More)
Angiogenesis is a complex process critical for embryonic development and for survival. It is also a critical player in many pathologic processes, most notably in neoplasia. The cell signaling pathways involved in angiogenesis have become key targets for drug design, with more than 2,500 clinical trials currently under way. This review summarizes the(More)
Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family are potent inhibitors of the growth of many epithelial cell types. Transmembrane signaling by TGF-beta occurs via a complex of the serine/threonine kinases TGF-beta type 1 receptor and TGF-beta type 2 receptor (TGFBR2), and inactivating mutations in the latter have recently been detected in(More)
The ability to track cells and their patterns of gene expression in living organisms can increase our understanding of tissue development and disease. Gene reporters for bioluminescence, fluorescence, radionuclide, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been described but these suffer variously from limited depth penetration, spatial resolution, and(More)
Symmetrically substituted difluoro derivatives of 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (nFBAPTA) show large 19F NMR chemical shifts on chelating divalent cations. The complexes of Ca2+ with 4FBAPTA and 5FBAPTA show fast and slow exchange behavior, respectively, and the chemical shift or the areas of the resonances from the free and(More)
BACKGROUND TGF-β acts as a suppressor of primary tumor initiation but has been implicated as a promoter of the later malignant stages. Here associations with risk of invasive breast cancer are assessed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) tagging 17 genes in the canonical TGF-β ALK5/SMADs 2&3 and ALK1/SMADs 1&5 signaling pathways: LTBP1, LTBP2, LTBP4,(More)
Retinal neovascularization occurs in a variety of diseases including diabetic retinopathy, the most common cause of blindness in the developed world. There is accordingly considerable incentive to develop drugs that target the aberrant angiogenesis associated with these conditions. Previous studies have shown that a number of anti-angiogenic agents can(More)