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Electrification in developed countries has progressively increased the mean level of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) to which populations are exposed; these humanmade fields are substantially above the naturally occurring ambient electric and magnetic fields of approximately 10(-4) Vm(-1) and approximately 10(-13) T, respectively.(More)
Angiogenesis is a complex process critical for embryonic development and for survival. It is also a critical player in many pathologic processes, most notably in neoplasia. The cell signaling pathways involved in angiogenesis have become key targets for drug design, with more than 2,500 clinical trials currently under way. This review summarizes the(More)
BACKGROUND TGF-β acts as a suppressor of primary tumor initiation but has been implicated as a promoter of the later malignant stages. Here associations with risk of invasive breast cancer are assessed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) tagging 17 genes in the canonical TGF-β ALK5/SMADs 2&3 and ALK1/SMADs 1&5 signaling pathways: LTBP1, LTBP2, LTBP4,(More)
Combretastatin-A4 phosphate (cis-CA-4) is a tubulin-binding agent currently undergoing clinical trials as an anti-tumour drug. We have investigated whether CA-4 functions as a tumour-specific anti-vascular agent using the hyperplastic thyroid as a novel in vivo model of neovascularization. CA-4 elicited pathological changes in normal tissue, manifested as(More)
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