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Over early fetal life the anterior brain, neuroepithelium, neural crest and facial ectoderm constitute a unitary, three-dimensional (3D) developmental process. This intimate embryological relationship between the face and brain means that facial dysmorphogenesis can serve as an accessible and informative index of brain dysmorphogenesis in neurological and(More)
BACKGROUND Over early fetal life, when disturbances in schizophrenia have been posited and craniofacial dysmorphogenesis reported, cerebral morphogenesis proceeds in embryological intimacy with craniofacial morphogenesis. Digitization technologies now allow 3D recording of craniofacial surface landmarks and modeling of craniofacial shape differences using(More)
The regional variability of the modern human craniofacial form is of importance to debates about human origins. The study of craniofacial form has generally been carried out either by interlandmark distance measurement and analysis or by observation and character scoring. In this study of four modern human groups (Eskimo/Inuit, African, Australian, and(More)
The embryological unity over early fetal life of the anterior brain, neuroepithelium, neural crest, and facial ectoderm is responsible for facial dysmorphogenesis in disorders of early brain development, including schizophrenia. This study examined covariance of facial shape and asymmetry with cognition in a normal sample of 36 men and 51 women using(More)
BACKGROUND Although a role for early developmental disturbance(s) in schizophrenia is postulated, it has proved difficult to identify hard, biological evidence. The brain and face emerge in embryologic intimacy, such that in neurodevelopmental disorders, brain dysmorphogenesis is accompanied by facial dysmorphogenesis. METHODS Three-dimensional (3D) laser(More)
Over early fetal life cerebral and craniofacial morphogenesis proceed in embryological intimacy. Therefore, craniofacial shape differences between schizophrenia patients and controls are informative of developmental disturbance(s) in cerebral-craniofacial morphogenesis. 3D craniofacial coordinates were calculated from interlandmark distances for 169(More)
Any developmental relationship between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia engenders continuing debate. As the brain and face emerge in embryological intimacy, brain dysmorphogenesis is accompanied by facial dysmorphogenesis. 3D laser surface imaging was used to capture the facial surface of 13 male and 14 female patients with bipolar disorder in comparison(More)
Persons with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are characterized inter alia by facial dysmorphology and greatly increased risk for psychotic illness. Recent studies indicate facial dysmorphology in adults with schizophrenia. This study evaluates the extent to which the facial dysmorphology of 22q11.2DS is similar to or different from that evident in(More)
In this paper, the problem of estimating automatically the symmetry plane of bilateral objects (having perfect or imperfect mirror symmetry) in point clouds is reexamined. Classical methods, mostly based on the ICP algorithm, are shown to be limited and complicated by an inappropriate parameterization of the problem. First, we show how an adequate(More)
We present a method to automatically quantify the local asymmetries of bilateral structures in point clouds. The method relies on the robust computation of the approximate symmetry plane of the object under study. This plane is defined as the minimiser of a criterion , based on a M-estimator and devised to reduce the influence of asymmetrical features of(More)
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