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Movement-related effects in realigned fMRI timeseries can be corrected by regression on linear functions of estimated positional displacements of an individual subject's head during image acquisition. However, this entails biased (under)estimation of the experimental effect whenever subject motion is not independent of the experimental input function.(More)
BACKGROUND Normal aging is accompanied by a decline of cognitive abilities, and executive skills may be affected selectively, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure and preventive strategies are lacking. It has been suggested that cortical "disconnection" due to the loss of white matter fibers may play an important role. But, to date, there has been(More)
Recent work has shown that the hippocampus contains a class of receptors for the excitatory amino acid glutamate that are activated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and that exhibit a peculiar dependency on membrane voltage in becoming active only on depolarization. Blockade of these sites with the drug aminophosphonovaleric acid (AP5) does not detectably(More)
Changing the strength of connections between neurons is widely assumed to be the mechanism by which memory traces are encoded and stored in the central nervous system. In its most general form, the synaptic plasticity and memory hypothesis states that "activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is induced at appropriate synapses during memory formation and is(More)
Groups of patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and idiopathic Parkinson's disease, together with age and IQ-matched normal controls, were compared on several computerized tests of visuospatial memory and learning. Two different groups of parkinsonian patients were studied: (1) a newly diagnosed group, early in the course of the disease, not(More)
Specific patterns of neuronal firing induce changes in synaptic strength that may contribute to learning and memory. If the postsynaptic NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are blocked, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission and the learning of spatial information are prevented. The NMDA receptor can bind a(More)
  • R G Morris
  • 1989
This paper reports a series of 5 experiments concerned with a possible role for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in certain types of learning. The results show that chronic intraventricular infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D,L-AP5) caused an impairment of spatial but not of visual discrimination learning(More)
Mice that overexpress the human mutant amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) show learning deficits, but the apparent lack of a relationship between these deficits and the progressive beta-amyloid plaque formation that the hAPP mice display is puzzling. In the water maze, hAPP mice are impaired before and after amyloid plaque deposition. Here we show, using a(More)
In 'colored-hearing' synesthesia, individuals report color experiences when they hear spoken words. If the synesthetic color experience resembles that of normal color perception, one would predict activation of parts of the visual system specialized for such perception, namely the human 'color center', referred to as either V4 or V8. Using functional(More)