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Changing the strength of connections between neurons is widely assumed to be the mechanism by which memory traces are encoded and stored in the central nervous system. In its most general form, the synaptic plasticity and memory hypothesis states that "activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is induced at appropriate synapses during memory formation and is(More)
Movement-related effects in realigned fMRI timeseries can be corrected by regression on linear functions of estimated positional displacements of an individual subject's head during image acquisition. However, this entails biased (under)estimation of the experimental effect whenever subject motion is not independent of the experimental input function.(More)
BACKGROUND Normal aging is accompanied by a decline of cognitive abilities, and executive skills may be affected selectively, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure and preventive strategies are lacking. It has been suggested that cortical "disconnection" due to the loss of white matter fibers may play an important role. But, to date, there has been(More)
Specific patterns of neuronal firing induce changes in synaptic strength that may contribute to learning and memory. If the postsynaptic NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are blocked, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission and the learning of spatial information are prevented. The NMDA receptor can bind a(More)
We investigated the role of NMDA receptors in memory encoding and retrieval. A delayed matching-to-place (DMP) paradigm in the watermaze was used to examine 1-trial spatial memory in rats. Over periods of up to 21 days, 4 daily trials were given to an escape platform hidden in a new location each day, with the memory interval (ITI) varying from 15 sec to 2(More)
Recent work has shown that the hippocampus contains a class of receptors for the excitatory amino acid glutamate that are activated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and that exhibit a peculiar dependency on membrane voltage in becoming active only on depolarization. Blockade of these sites with the drug aminophosphonovaleric acid (AP5) does not detectably(More)
In 'colored-hearing' synesthesia, individuals report color experiences when they hear spoken words. If the synesthetic color experience resembles that of normal color perception, one would predict activation of parts of the visual system specialized for such perception, namely the human 'color center', referred to as either V4 or V8. Using functional(More)
To analyse the functions of different parts of the prefrontal cortex in emotion, patients with different prefrontal surgical excisions were compared on four measures of emotion: voice and face emotional expression identification, social behaviour, and the subjective experience of emotion. Some patients with bilateral lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex(More)
We have determined the volume and location of hippocampal tissue required for normal acquisition of a spatial memory task. Ibotenic acid was used to make bilateral symmetric lesions of 20-100% of hippocampal volume. Even a small transverse block (minislab) of the hippocampus (down to 26% of the total) could support spatial learning in a water maze, provided(More)