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BACKGROUND Alcohol use has a detrimental impact on the HIV epidemic, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV counseling and testing (HCT) may provide a contact opportunity to intervene with hazardous alcohol use; however, little is known about how alcohol consumption changes following HCT. METHODS We utilized data from 2056 participants of a randomized(More)
BACKGROUND HIV counselling and testing and linkage to care are crucial for successful HIV prevention and treatment. Abbreviated counselling could save time; however, its effect on HIV risk is uncertain and methods to improve linkage to care have not been studied. METHODS We did this factorial randomised controlled study at Mulago Hospital, Uganda.(More)
Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on(More)
BACKGROUND Late diagnosis of HIV infection is a major challenge to the scale-up of HIV prevention and treatment. In 2005 Uganda adopted provider-initiated HIV testing in the health care setting to ensure earlier HIV diagnosis and linkage to care. We provided HIV testing to patients at Mulago hospital in Uganda, and performed CD4 tests to assess disease(More)
AIMS We examined whether unhealthy alcohol consumption, which negatively impacts HIV outcomes, changes after HIV care entry overall and by several factors. We also compared using phosphatidylethanol (PEth, an alcohol biomarker) to augment self-report to using self-report alone. DESIGN A prospective 1-year observational cohort study with quarterly visits.(More)
BACKGROUND Preventing unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV is an important component of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), yet few data exist on contraceptive use among women entering HIV care. METHODS This was a retrospective study of electronic medical records from the initial HIV clinic visits of 826 sexually active,(More)
Immune activation, CD4+ T cell counts, and viremia exhibit oscillatory patterns over time in patients with highly resistant HIV infection. PLoS One. 2011;6:e21190. 9. Benson CA, Vaida F, Havlir DV, et al. A randomized trial of treatment interruption before optimized antiretroviral therapy for persons with drug-resistant HIV: 48-week virologic results of(More)
BACKGROUND In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), HIV-infected patients may underreport alcohol consumption. We compared self-reports of drinking to phosphatidylethanol (PEth), an alcohol biomarker. In particular, we assessed beverage-type-adjusted fractional graduated frequency (FGF) and quantity frequency (QF) measures of grams of alcohol, novel nonvolume measures,(More)
Interactive toxicity beliefs regarding mixing alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART) may influence ART adherence. HIV-infected patients in Uganda completed quarterly visits for 1 year, or one visit at 6 months, depending on study randomization. Past month ART non-adherence was less than daily or <100 % on a visual analog scale. Participants were asked if(More)