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Osteoprotegerin-ligand (OPGL) is a key osteoclast differentiation/activation factor essential for bone remodeling. We report that mice lacking OPGL or its receptor RANK fail to form lobulo-alveolar mammary structures during pregnancy, resulting in death of newborns. Transplantation and OPGL-rescue experiments in opgl-/- and rank-/- pregnant females showed(More)
We and others recently reported tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and apoptosis ligand-related leukocyte-expressed ligand 1 (TALL-1) as a novel member of the TNF ligand family that is functionally involved in B cell proliferation. Transgenic mice overexpressing TALL-1 have severe B cell hyperplasia and lupus-like autoimmune disease. Here, we describe expression(More)
Calcium entry into T cells following antigen stimulation is crucial for nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-mediated T cell activation. The movement of calcium is mediated by calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels. There are two key components of this channel: Orai1 is the pore-forming subunit located in the plasma membrane, and stromal(More)
With the growth of the Internet and increased demand for Web Services has come a heightened need for scal-able wide-area group communication systems. The need for trust in such systems and the vulnerability of such systems to attack provide motivation to develop protocols that are intrusion-tolerant and able to provide critical services even during an(More)
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