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Implementing mechanisms for rewarding those who introduce innovative medicinal products requires a definition of 'rewardable innovation'. Here, we propose a definition of innovation with respect to medicinal products, accompanied by a ranking of the importance of different types of innovativeness, with the aim of providing a basis for rewarding such(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the evidence for ethnic differences in susceptibility to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to cardiovascular drugs. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES We searched Medline and Embase to March 2005. Reference lists of identified articles were hand searched for further relevant articles. REVIEW METHODS Studies were(More)
  • R E Ferner
  • 2008
Clinical pharmacology assumes that deductions can be made about the concentrations of drugs from a knowledge of the pharmacokinetic parameters in an individual; and that the effects are related to the measured concentration. Post-mortem changes render the assumptions of clinical pharmacology largely invalid, and make the interpretation of concentrations(More)
'Preventability' is a crucial concept in the literature on adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We have carried out a systematic review in order to identify and analyse the approaches used to define 'preventability' in relation to ADRs. We have restricted this investigation to definitions of preventability and have not dealt with other aspects. We searched(More)
AIMS To examine the adequacy of instructions to monitor for haematological adverse drug reactions in the Summary of Product Characteristics. METHODS We searched the United Kingdom eMedicines Compendium to identify instructions to monitor for haematological adverse drug reactions, and selected 84 Summaries of Product Characteristics for nonhaematological(More)
The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of an intravenous dose (500 mg) of paracetamol were studied in a group of non-insulin dependent diabetic patients (n = 10) and in a group of healthy control subjects (n = 9). Paracetamol clearance, half-life and the partial clearance to paracetamol glucuronide were not significantly different, but the partial clearance to(More)