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OBJECTIVE To determine whether S-nitrosylation of connexins (Cxs) modulates gap junction communication between endothelium and smooth muscle. METHODS AND RESULTS Heterocellular communication is essential for endothelium control of smooth muscle constriction; however, the exact mechanism governing this action remains unknown. Cxs and NO have been(More)
RATIONALE The coordination of vascular smooth muscle cell constriction plays an important role in vascular function, such as regulation of blood pressure; however, the mechanism responsible for vascular smooth muscle cell communication is not clear in the resistance vasculature. Pannexins (Panx) are purine-releasing channels permeable to the vasoconstrictor(More)
Time to exhaustion at 87-91% of peak VO2 was measured in 5 untrained men (age: 31 +/- 8 years, body mass: 74.20 +/- 16.50 kg, body surface area: 1.90 +/- 0.24 m2, peak VO2: 2.87 +/- 0.40 l min-1, plasma volume: 3.21 +/- 0.88 l; means +/-SD) after consuming nothing (N) or two fluid formulations (10 ml kg-1, 743 +/- 161 ml): Performance 1 (P1), a multi-ionic(More)
To determine whether simulated microgravity in rats is associated with vascular dysfunction, we measured responses of isolated, pressurized mesenteric resistance artery segments (157- to 388-microm ID) to vasoconstrictors, pressure, and shear stress after 28-day hindlimb suspension (HS). Results indicated no differences between HS and control (C) groups in(More)
NO plays critical roles in vascular function. We show that modulation of the eNOS serine 1179 (S1179) phosphorylation site affects vascular reactivity and determines stroke size in vivo. Transgenic mice expressing only a phosphomimetic (S1179D) form of eNOS show greater vascular reactivity, develop less severe strokes, and have improved cerebral blood flow(More)
Functional hyperemia requires the coordination of smooth muscle cell relaxation along and between branches of the arteriolar network. Vasodilation is conducted from cell to cell along the arteriolar wall through gap junction channels composed of connexin protein subunits. Within skeletal muscle, it is unclear whether arteriolar endothelium, smooth muscle,(More)
OBJECTIVES Conduction of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator responses in the microcirculation involves electrical coupling through gap junction channels among cells of the vascular wall. The present study determined whether reported differences in the properties of conduction along the arterioles of the epithelial hamster cheek pouch (CPA) and feed arteries of(More)
The functions of caveolae and/or caveolins in intact animals are beginning to be explored. Here, by using endothelial cell-specific transgenesis of the caveolin-1 (Cav-1) gene in mice, we show the critical role of Cav-1 in several postnatal vascular paradigms. First, increasing levels of Cav-1 do not increase caveolae number in the endothelium in vivo.(More)
RATIONALE Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a biomarker for several vascular disease states; however, its target of action within the vessel wall is undefined. OBJECTIVE Determine the ability of PAI-1 to regulate myoendothelial junction (MEJ) formation. METHODS AND RESULTS MEJs are found throughout the vasculature linking endothelial cells(More)
BACKGROUND Plasma osmolality (Osm) is important for controlling and maintaining plasma volume (PV) and body water. The effect of oral rehydration fluids for ameliorating dehydration is well-established; but optimal composition and Osm of fluids for hyperhydrating normally hydrated subjects is less clear. METHODS Six treatments were used without and with(More)