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OBJECTIVE While brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for communication have reached considerable technical maturity, there is still a great need for state-of-the-art evaluation by the end-users outside laboratory environments. To achieve this primary objective, it is necessary to augment a BCI with a series of components that allow end-users to type text(More)
Recently, several studies have started to explore covert visuospatial attention as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Covert visuospatial attention represents the ability to change the focus of attention from one point in the space without overt eye movements. Nevertheless, the full potential and possible applications of this paradigm(More)
OBJECTIVE In this work we present--for the first time--the online operation of an electroencephalogram (EEG) brain-computer interface (BCI) system based on covert visuospatial attention (CVSA), without relying on any evoked responses. Electrophysiological correlates of pure top-down CVSA have only recently been proposed as a control signal for BCI. Such(More)
Successful operation of motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) requires mutual adaptation between the human subject and the BCI. Traditional training methods, as well as more recent ones based on co-adaptation, have mainly focused on the machine-learning aspects of BCI training. This work presents a novel co-adaptive training protocol(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated the effect of multimodal (visual and auditory) continuous feedback with information about the uncertainty of the input signal on motor imagery based BCI performance. A liquid floating through a visualization of a funnel (funnel feedback) provided enriched visual or enriched multimodal feedback. METHODS In a between(More)
How movements are generated and controlled by the central nervous system (CNS) is still not well understood. In this work, we tested the hypothesis of a modular organization of the brain activity during the execution of voluntary movements. In particular, we extracted meta-stable topographies as a measure for global brain state, so-called microstates, from(More)
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