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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE   The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of abnormalities in the brain of patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS   Twenty patients and twenty controls were studied. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed using statistical parametric(More)
BACKGROUND The pathophysiology of periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) in restless legs syndrome (RLS) is unclear. OBJECTIVE The authors neurophysiologically investigated PLMS in patients with idiopathic RLS in order to obtain information on the origin and pathophysiology of the movements. METHODS Ten patients with idiopathic RLS underwent(More)
Different pathological conditions may lead to somnambulic automatisms arising from nocturnal sleep. Video polysomnography represents the diagnostic tool but, due to the difficulty of capturing complex episodes in the sleep laboratory, audio-video recordings at home of the episodes may help in the differential diagnosis also. Sleepwalking is a disorder of(More)
AIMS To describe the clinical and polygraphic features of propriospinal myoclonus (PSM) at sleep onset. MATERIAL AND METHODS PSM was first described in 1997 in patients with jerks occurring in the relaxation period preceding sleep. EMG showed jerks to arise in spinally innervated muscles, propagating thereafter to rostral and caudal muscles at a low(More)
Peduncular hallucinosis (PH) consists of formed and coloured visual images, which the patient knows are unreal; it is often associated with lesions of the pons, midbrain and diencephalon. A 72-year-old man had noted the sudden onset of visual hallucinations one year before, specifying the time and body position in a 4-week, 24-h diary. Thereafter, he(More)
A patient with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal motor attacks during sleep had brief paroxysmal arousals (PAs), complex episodes of nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia, and epileptic nocturnal wandering since childhood. Ictal SPECT during an episode of PA demonstrated increased blood flow in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and(More)
Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by recurrent arousals from sleep associated with compulsive ingestion of food. No controlled therapeutic trials are available for SRED. We assessed the safety, tolerability and efficacy of pramipexole, a dopamine D3-receptor agonist, in the treatment of SRED. Eleven consecutive patients with SRED in the(More)
Seizures, namely in certain epileptic conditions, may be precipitated by sleep. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy seizures, characterized by bizarre motor behaviour and autonomic activation, appear almost exclusively during sleep. The differential diagnosis between this condition and sleep-related non-epileptic paroxysmal motor phenomena, in particular the(More)
The history, clinical aspects, and treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS), a heterogeneous distressing sensorimotor disorder, and periodic limb movements (PLMs) that are the typical motor accompaniment of the syndrome, are described. A positive family history, a positive response to dopaminergic treatment, and the presence of PLM while awake or asleep(More)
OBJECTIVE Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) in Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) are associated with arousals and stereotyped EEG and heart rate (HR) changes. We investigated PLMS-related EEG and HR variations in multiple system atrophy (MSA) in order to detect possible abnormalities in cortical and autonomic arousal responses. METHODS Ten patients(More)