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The association of neuropeptide-Y (NPY)-immunoreactive (IR) axon terminals with TRH-synthesizing neurons in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) has been studied. Immunocytochemical single and double labeling studies were performed at both light and electron microscopic levels using antiserum to NPY and, as a marker of TRH-containing neurons,(More)
To determine whether the cytokine, interleukin-1 beta, is present in the rat brain as has been reported in human brain, immunocytochemical studies were performed using an antiserum that recognizes recombinant, rat IL-1 beta. Immunoreaction product was present in the periventricular and medial hypothalamus, mossy fiber distribution in the hippocampus and(More)
Thyrotropin-releasing-hormone (TRH)-synthesizing neurons in the medial and periventricular parvocellular subdivisions of the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are involved in regulation of the anterior pituitary. Since ultrashort feedback regulation of TRH in the hypothalamus has been suggested by physiological studies, we sought to identify(More)
Historical investigation suggests that the role of the hypothalamus as a site of integration for endocrine with autonomic and behavioral responses in man rises from ideas and observations first appearing between the 14th and 18th centuries. Research on human, post-mortem brains and by in vivo magnetic resonance techniques reveal that the functional(More)
  • R Toni
  • 2004
The neuroendocrine system (NES) of Vertebrates can be defined as a set of cells organized in single organs and diffuse elements, sharing co-production of amine hormone/transmitters, peptide hormone/transmitters and specific markers of neural determination. In this perspective, the hypothalamic-pituitary-target organ axis (H-P axis), the autonomic nervous(More)
The modern views on the anatomical and physiological interactions between the hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid gland have emerged only in the last fifty years, although their historical roots may be found in a number of ancient and still not widely known ideas and observations. The regulation of energy body stores and temperature by the(More)
A unique role for CCK-58 compared to that for CCK-8 has been demonstrated in the modulation of central catecholaminergic mechanisms and neuroendocrine functions. It is of paramount importance to localize CCK-58 immunoreactivity within the brain in order to establish if separate CCK-58- and CCK-8-immunoreactive neuron systems exist. The two most significant(More)
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is produced by neurons in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and may have an important role as a prolactin-releasing factor. Recent work from our laboratories has shown that thyroid hormone regulates the content of VIP and VIP mRNA in the rat anterior pituitary, but its effect on VIP in the PVN is not(More)
We have recently reported that hypothyroidism increases immunoreactive (IR)-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and VIP mRNA content in both parvocellular and magnocellular neurons of the rat, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). As VIP can stimulate vasopressin (AVP) secretion, we conducted an anatomical investigation to determine whether(More)
The development of neural networks and brain automata has made neuroscientists aware that the performance limits of these brain-like devices lies, at least in part, in their computational power. The computational basis of a. standard cybernetic design, in fact, refers to that of a discrete and finite state machine or Turing Machine (TM). In contrast, it has(More)