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The cellular response to low tissue oxygen concentrations is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1. Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1 activates transcription of critical adaptive genes by recruitment of the general coactivators CBP/p300 through interactions with its alpha-subunit (Hif-1 alpha). Disruption of the Hif-1 alpha/p300(More)
The RNA genome of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) contains a approximately 120 nucleotide Psi-packaging signal that is recognized by the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the Gag polyprotein during virus assembly. The Psi-site contains four stem-loops (SL1-SL4) that possess overlapping and possibly redundant functions. The present studies(More)
Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and can cause a hemorrhagic fever or a cardiopulmonary syndrome in humans. Mature virions consist of RNA genome, nucleocapsid protein, RNA polymerase, and two transmembrane glycoproteins, G1 and G2. The ectodomain of G1 is surface-exposed; however, it has a 142-residue C-terminal cytoplasmic tail that plays important(More)
The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) contains two CCHC-type zinc knuckle domains that are essential for genome recognition, packaging and infectivity. The solution structure of the protein has been determined independently by three groups. Although the structures of the individual zinc knuckle domains are similar, two of the studies indicated that the(More)
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a protein injection nanomachinery required for virulence by many human pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella and Shigella. An essential component of the T3SS is the tip protein and the Salmonella SipD and the Shigella IpaD tip proteins interact with bile salts, which serve as environmental sensors for these enteric(More)
The three-dimensional structure of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid protein (NC) bound to the SL3 stem-loop recognition element of the genomic Psi RNA packaging signal has been determined by heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Tight binding (dissociation constant, approximately 100 nM) is mediated by specific(More)
The genome of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) contains a stretch of approximately 120 nucleotides known as the psi-site that is essential for RNA packaging during virus assembly. These nucleotides have been proposed to form four stem-loops (SL1-SL4) that have both independent and overlapping functions. Stem-loop SL2 is important for(More)
Many plant and animal bacterial pathogens assemble a needle-like nanomachine, the type III secretion system (T3SS), to inject virulence proteins directly into eukaryotic cells to initiate infection. The ability of bacteria to inject effectors into host cells is essential for infection, survival, and pathogenesis for many Gram-negative bacteria, including(More)
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is essential in the pathogenesis of many bacteria. The inner rod is important in the assembly of the T3SS needle complex. However, the atomic structure of the inner rod protein is currently unknown. Based on computational methods, others have suggested that the Salmonella inner rod protein PrgJ is highly helical, forming(More)
The transcriptional coactivator protein CBP and its paralog p300 each contain two homologous zinc-containing TAZ domains, which constitute the interaction sites for a number of transcription factors. Previous reports of the three-dimensional structures of TAZ1 in complex with binding partners and of the isolated CBP TAZ2 domain show a distinctive topology(More)