An improved MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm charge controller exploiting an interleaved synchronous buck converter has been designed and realized to extract the maximum power from a photovoltaic panel. The converter sends the available photovoltaic energy to a battery pack thanks to an input control loop that reads the input voltage and limits… (More)
This paper reports on a new online lead-acid battery state of charge (SOC) monitoring system for both the discharge and charge periods. The proposed SOC monitoring system is based on both a mathematical model and static charge/discharge characteristics at various current rates. Experimental results confirming the validity of the model are also reported.