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Studies in nonhuman primates documented that appropriate stimulation of dopamine (DA) D1 receptors in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is critical for working memory processing. The defective ability of patients with schizophrenia at working memory tasks is a core feature of this illness. It has been postulated that this impairment relates to a(More)
CONTEXT Postmortem studies have found evidence of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits in fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in unmedicated patients have reported glutamine or glutamate-glutamine (Glx) elevations in this region. Abnormalities in these transmitters(More)
We previously reported a preserved 'old-new effect' (enhanced parietal positivity 300-800 ms following correctly-recognized repeated words) in schizophrenia over mid-parietal sites using 31-channel nose-referenced event-related potentials (ERP) and reference-free current source densities (CSD). However, patients showed poorer word recognition memory and(More)
Greater left than right reductions of P3 amplitude in schizophrenia during auditory oddball tasks have been interpreted as evidence of left-lateralized dysfunction. However, the contributions of methodological factors (response mode, stimulus properties, recording reference), which affect event-related potential (ERP) topographies, remain unclear. We(More)
BACKGROUND A decrease in dopamine type 2 receptors (D2) and mesolimbic dopamine transmission predisposes animals to consume alcohol. This study measured D2 receptors and dopamine transmission in human alcohol-dependent (AD) subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]raclopride. METHODS Fifteen AD and 15 healthy control (HC) subjects were(More)
CONTEXT A long-standing version of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia postulates that hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission at D(2) receptors in the limbic striatum is associated with the illness and that blockade of mesolimbic D(2) receptors is responsible for the antipsychotic action of D(2) receptor antagonists. OBJECTIVE To localize(More)
OBJECTIVE Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist at the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor that is used in human and animal medicine as an injectable anesthetic. The illegal use of ketamine as a recreational drug is rapidly growing. Very little is currently known about the consequences of repeated ketamine exposure in the human brain.(More)
D₁ receptors are the main mediators of dopamine transmission in the cortex and subserve cognitive functions that are affected in patients with schizophrenia. Prior imaging studies have suggested abnormalities in the expression of these receptors in schizophrenia, but no conclusive picture has emerged yet. One source of discrepancy may have been prior(More)
Positron emission tomography (PET) and the high affinity D(2/3) radiotracer [(18)F]fallypride allow the assessment of D(2/3) receptor occupancy of antipsychotic drugs in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions. We measured regional occupancy attained across a range of clinical dosing by the partial D(2) agonist aripiprazole using these methods.(More)
Several lines of evidence from post-mortem, brain imaging, and genetic studies in schizophrenia patients suggest that Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) deficits may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Pharmacological induction of a transient GABA-deficit state has been shown to enhance vulnerability of healthy subjects to the psychotomimetic(More)