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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE FOG is a troublesome symptom of PD. Despite growing evidence suggesting that FOG in PD may be associated with cognitive dysfunction, the relationship between regional brain atrophy and FOG has been poorly investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS Optimized VBM was applied to 3T brain MR images of 24 patients with PD and 12 HC. Patients(More)
The objective of this study was to evaluate hearing impairment in patients affected by Parkinson's disease compared with hearing scores observed in normal age- and sex-matched controls. One hundred eighteen consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease were screened. Severity of motor symptoms and staging were measured with the(More)
BACKGROUND Anxiety is a common non-motor symptom among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the etiology of anxiety in PD is likely to be multifactorial, a dysfunction in the dopaminergic system might be implicated in its pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to investigate a possible dopaminergic mechanism involved in anxiety in newly(More)
Drug-induced parkinsonism is the second most common cause of parkinsonism after Parkinson's disease and their distinction has crucial implications in terms of management and prognosis. However, differentiating between these conditions can be challenging on a clinical ground, especially in the early stages. We therefore performed a review to ascertain(More)
Cognitive impairment is common in PD, even in early stages. The construct of mild cognitive impairment has been used to identify clinically evident cognitive impairment without functional decline in PD patients (PD-MCI). The aim of the present study was to investigate brain connectivity associated with PD-MCI through RS-fMRI. RS-fMRI at 3T was collected in(More)
BACKGROUND The variability in the clinical phenotype of Parkinson's disease seems to suggest the existence of several subtypes of the disease. To test this hypothesis we performed a cluster analysis using data assessing both motor and non-motor symptoms in a large cohort of newly diagnosed untreated PD patients. METHODS We collected data on demographic,(More)
INTRODUCTION Apathy is a neuropsychiatric symptom in Parkinson's Disease (PD) which has a negative impact on quality of life and might be related in part to damage of presynaptic dopaminergic system. Little is known about relationship between striatal dopamine levels and apathy in PD patients without dementia and/or depression. The aim of the present study(More)
BACKGROUND Non-motor symptoms are very common among patients with Parkinson's disease since the earliest stage, but little is known about their progression and their relationship with dopaminergic replacement therapy. METHODS We studied non-motor symptoms before and after 2 years from dopaminergic therapy introduction in ninety-one newly diagnosed(More)
BACKGROUND A relation between the side of motor onset and cognitive impairment in early PD has been reported, suggesting that the asymmetric degeneration affecting subcortical regions may play a pivotal role in lateralized cognitive function. However, evidences are controversial and all previous studies were performed on treated patients, though it is known(More)