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The molecular basis for epileptogenesis remains poorly defined, but repeated or prolonged seizures can cause altered hippocampal N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) stoichiometry, loss of hippocampal neurons, and aberrant mossy fiber sprouting. Using the muscarinic receptor 1 (m1R) agonist, pilocarpine (PILO), in hippocampal cell cultures we explored the(More)
Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) has been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is present in neurofibrillary tangles or Lewy bodies. However, the molecular basis for UCH-L1s involvement in proteinacious fibril formation is still elusive, especially in regard to the pathogenicity of the I93M mutation. Here we show that modification of(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is one of the leading prenatal causes of congenital mental retardation and deformities world-wide. Access to cultured human neuronal lineages, necessary to understand the species specific pathogenic effects of HCMV, has been limited by difficulties in sustaining primary human neuronal cultures. Human induced(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to treat pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery; however, prenatal exposure to GCs may trigger adverse neurological side effects due to reduced neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation. Whereas many established cell-cycle regulators impact NPC proliferation, other signaling molecules, such as the gap junction protein(More)
Hippocampal sclerosis, the main pathological sign of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), is associated with oxidative injury, altered N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) stoichiometry, and loss of hippocampal neurons. However, the mechanisms that drive the chronic progression of TLE remain elusive. Our previous studies have shown that NADPH oxidase(More)
α-Synuclein accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction have both been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), and the two appear to be related. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to accumulation and oligomerization of α-synuclein, and increased levels of α-synuclein cause mitochondrial impairment, but the basis for this(More)
AIMS The study of the intracellular oxido-reductive (redox) state is of extreme relevance to the dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. These cells possess a distinct physiology intrinsically associated with elevated reactive oxygen species production, and they selectively degenerate in Parkinson's disease under oxidative stress(More)
Mutations in leucine-rich repeated kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause autosomal dominant late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), and the G2019S mutation in the kinase domain of LRRK2 is the most common genetic cause of familial PD. Enhanced kinase activity of G2019S LRRK2 is a suspected mechanism for carriers to develop PD but pathophysiological function of G2019S LRRK2(More)
While aberrant cell proliferation and differentiation may contribute to epileptogenesis, the mechanisms linking an initial epileptic insult to subsequent changes in cell fate remain elusive. Using both mouse and human iPSC-derived neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs), we found that a combined transient muscarinic and mGluR1 stimulation inhibited overall(More)
High levels of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), hypermethylation, and downregulation of GAD(67) and reelin have been described in GABAergic interneurons of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP) disorders. However, overexpression of DNMT1 is lethal, making it difficult to assess the direct effect of high levels of DNMT1 on neuronal development in(More)