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A model of the effects of aging on brain activity during cognitive performance is introduced. The model is called HAROLD (hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults), and it states that, under similar circumstances, prefrontal activity during cognitive performances tends to be less lateralized in older adults than in younger adults. The model is(More)
Whereas some older adults show significant cognitive deficits, others perform as well as young adults. We investigated the neural basis of these different aging patterns using positron emission tomography (PET). In PET and functional MRI (fMRI) studies, prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity tends to be less asymmetric in older than in younger adults (Hemispheric(More)
The contribution of the parietal cortex to episodic memory is a fascinating scientific puzzle. On the one hand, parietal lesions do not normally yield severe episodic-memory deficits; on the other hand, parietal activations are seen frequently in functional-neuroimaging studies of episodic memory. A review of these two categories of evidence suggests that(More)
Although parietal cortex is frequently activated during episodic memory retrieval, damage to this region does not markedly impair episodic memory. To account for these and other findings, a new dual attentional processes (DAP) hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) contributes top-down attentional processes guided(More)
Emotional events often attain a privileged status in memory. Cognitive neuroscientists have begun to elucidate the psychological and neural mechanisms underlying emotional retention advantages in the human brain. The amygdala is a brain structure that directly mediates aspects of emotional learning and facilitates memory operations in other regions,(More)
Emotional events are remembered better than neutral events possibly because the amygdala enhances the function of medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system (modulation hypothesis). Although this hypothesis has been supported by much animal research, evidence from humans has been scarce and indirect. We investigated this issue using event-related fMRI during(More)
Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that different cognitive functions activate overlapping brain regions. An activation overlap may occur because a region is involved in operations tapped by different cognitive functions or because the activated area comprises subregions differentially involved in each of the functions. To investigate these issues,(More)
It is controversial whether the effects of aging on various cognitive functions have the same common cause or several different causes. To investigate this issue, we scanned younger and older adults with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing three different tasks: working memory, visual attention and episodic retrieval. There were(More)
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity associated with emotional evaluation and subsequent memory was investigated with event-related functional MRI (fMRI). Participants were scanned while rating the pleasantness of emotionally positive, negative, and neutral pictures, and memory for the pictures was tested after scanning. Emotional evaluation was measured by(More)
Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effects of healthy aging on hippocampal and rhinal memory functions. Memory for past events can be based on retrieval accompanied by specific contextual details (recollection) or on the feeling that an event is old or new without the recovery of contextual details (familiarity). There(More)