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The receptor TLR9, recognizing unmethylated bacterial DNA (CpG), is expressed by B cells and plays a role in the maintenance of serological memory. Little is known about the response of B cells stimulated with CpG alone, without additional cytokines. In this study, we show for the first time the phenotypic modification, changes in gene expression, and(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been involved in disease, aging and cancer and furthermore exploited for evolutionary and forensic investigation. When investigating mtDNA mutations the peculiar aspects of mitochondrial genetics, such as heteroplasmy and threshold effect, require suitable approaches which must be sensitive enough to detect low-level(More)
Homozygous mutations in the gene for fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) have been associated in humans with three neurodegenerative disorders: complicated spastic paraplegia (SPG35), leukodystrophy with spastic paraparesis and dystonia, and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Here, we describe a novel homozygous c.270+3A>T mutation in an Italian(More)
Agammaglobulinemia is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by an early block of B cell development in the bone marrow, resulting in the absence of peripheral B cells and low/absent immunoglobulin serum levels. So far, mutations in Btk, mu heavy chain, surrogate light chain, Igalpha, and B cell linker have been found in 85-90% of patients with(More)
Autosomal-recessive agammaglobulinemia is a rare and heterogeneous disorder, characterized by early-onset infections, profound hypogammaglobulinemia of all immunoglobulin isotypes and absence of circulating B lymphocytes. To investigate the molecular basis of the disease, 23 patients with early-onset disease and no mutations in Bruton tyrosine kinase, the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Autosomal Recessive Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia with Thin Corpus Callosum (AR-HSPTCC) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous complicated form of spastic paraplegia. Two AR-HSPTCC loci have been assigned to chromosome 15q13-15 (SPG11) and chromosome 8p12-p11.21 respectively. Mutations in the SPG11 gene, encoding the spatacsin(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been described in almost all types of cancer. However, their exact role and timing of occurrence during tumor development and progression are still a matter of debate. A Vogelstein-like model of progression is well established for endometrial carcinoma (EC), however, mtDNA has been scarcely investigated in these(More)
A disruptive frameshift mtDNA mutation affecting the ND5 subunit of complex I is present in homoplasmy in a nasopharyngeal oncocytic tumor and inherited as a heteroplasmic germline mutation recurring in two of the patient's siblings. Homoplasmic ND5 mutation in the tumor correlates with lack of the ND6 subunit, suggesting complex I disassembly. A few(More)
An early age at Breast Cancer (BC) onset may be a hallmark of inherited predisposition, but BRCA1/2 mutations are only found in a minority of younger BC patients. Among the others, a fraction may carry mutations in rarer BC genes, such as TP53, STK11, CDH1 and PTEN. As the identification of women harboring such mutations allows for targeted risk-management,(More)
BACKGROUND Ikaros is the prototypic member of a Kruppel-like zinc finger transcription factor subfamily that is required for normal hematopoietic cell differentiation and proliferation, particularly in the lymphoid lineages. Alternative splicing can generate multiple Ikaros isoforms that lack different numbers of exons and have different functions. Shorter(More)