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Pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) expression is critical for B lineage development. The signaling events initiated by the pre-BCR, however, remain poorly defined. We demonstrate that lipid rafts are the major functional compartment for human pre-B cell activation. A fraction of pre-BCR was constitutively raft associated, and receptor engagement enhanced this(More)
Protein-tyrosine kinases play crucial roles in mast cell activation through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI). In this study, we have made the following observations on growth properties and FcepsilonRI-mediated signal transduction of primary cultured mast cells from Btk-, Lyn-, and Btk/Lyn-deficient mice. First, Lyn deficiency partially reversed(More)
NF-kappa B signaling is required for the maintenance of normal B lymphocytes, whereas dysregulated NF-kappa B activation contributes to B cell lymphomas. The events that regulate NF-kappa B signaling in B lymphocytes are poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that PKC-beta is specifically required for B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated NF-kappa B activation. B(More)
Tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma2 (PLCgamma2) is a crucial activation switch that initiates and maintains intracellular calcium mobilization in response to B cell antigen receptor (BCR) engagement. Although members from three distinct families of non-receptor tyrosine kinases can phosphorylate PLCgamma in vitro, the specific kinase(s)(More)
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is pivotal in B cell activation and development through its participation in the signaling pathways of multiple hematopoietic receptors. The mechanisms controlling BTK activation were studied here by examination of the biochemical consequences of an interaction between BTK and SRC family kinases. This interaction of BTK with(More)
We describe a long-term, in vitro culture system initiated with CD34(+) or CD34(+)CD38(-) umbilical cord blood hematopoietic progenitors that supports normal human B-lineage development, including the production of mature Ig-secreting B cells. In the first stage (human B-progenitor long-term culture [HB-LTC]), CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors are cultured(More)
Mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) result in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in humans and X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) in mice. While targeted disruption of the protein kinase C-beta (PKCbeta) gene in mice results in an immunodeficiency similar to xid, the overall tyrosine phosphorylation of Btk is significantly enhanced in PKCbeta-deficient(More)
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is essential for B-lineage development and represents an emerging family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases implicated in signal transduction events initiated by a range of cell surface receptors. Increased dosage of Btk in normal B cells resulted in a striking enhancement of extracellular calcium influx following B-cell antigen(More)
Akt (= protein kinase B), a subfamily of the AGC serine/threonine kinases, plays critical roles in survival, proliferation, glucose metabolism, and other cellular functions. Akt activation requires the recruitment of the enzyme to the plasma membrane by interacting with membrane-bound lipid products of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Membrane-bound Akt is(More)
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a lysosomotropic amine, is an immunosuppressive agent presently being evaluated in bone marrow transplant patients to treat graft-versus-host disease. While its immunosuppressive properties have been attributed primarily to its ability to interfere with antigen processing, recent reports demonstrate HCQ also blocks T-cell(More)