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Osteoclastic bone resorption requires cell-matrix contact, an event mediated by the alpha v beta 3 integrin. The structural components of the integrin that mediate osteoclast function are, however, not in hand. To address this issue, we generated mice lacking the beta 3 integrin gene, which have dysfunctional osteoclasts. Here, we show the full rescue of(More)
As the skeleton ages, the balanced formation and resorption of normal bone remodeling is lost, and bone loss predominates. The osteoclast is the specialized cell that is responsible for bone resorption. It is a highly polarized cell that must adhere to the bone surface and migrate along it while resorbing, and cytoskeletal reorganization is critical.(More)
TREM2 is an immunoreceptor expressed on osteoclasts (OC) and microglia that transmits intracellular signals through the adaptor DAP12. Individuals with genetic mutations inactivating TREM2 or DAP12 develop the Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) with cystic-like lesions of the bone and brain demyelination that lead to fractures and presenile dementia. The mechanisms(More)
beta(3) integrin-null osteoclasts are dysfunctional, but their numbers are increased in vivo. In vitro, however, the number of beta(3)(-/-) osteoclasts is reduced because of arrested differentiation. This paradox suggests cytokine regulation of beta(3)(-/-) osteoclastogenesis differs in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, additional MCSF, but not receptor(More)
The beta3 integrin cytoplasmic domain, and specifically S752, is critical for integrin localization and osteoclast (OC) function. Because growth factors such as macrophage colony-stimulating factor and hepatocyte growth factor affect integrin activation and function via inside-out signaling, a process requiring the beta integrin cytoplasmic tail, we(More)
Osteoporosis, a leading cause of morbidity in the elderly, is characterized by progressive loss of bone mass resulting from excess osteoclastic bone resorption relative to osteoblastic bone formation. Here we identify Vav3, a Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, as essential for stimulated osteoclast activation and bone density in vivo.(More)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which includes HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), has been associated with bone demineralization. To determine if this complication reflects accelerated resorptive activity, we studied the impact of two common HIV PIs, ritonavir and indinavir, on osteoclast formation and function. Surprisingly, we find that(More)
The Vav family of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors is thought to orchestrate signaling events downstream of lymphocyte antigen receptors. Elucidation of Vav function has been obscured thus far by the expression of three highly related family members. We generated mice lacking all Vav family proteins and show that Vav-null mice produce no functional T(More)
Osteoclasts are essential for bone dynamics and calcium homeostasis. The cells form a tight seal on the bone surface, onto which they secrete acid and proteases to resorb bone. The seal is associated with a ring of actin filaments. Cortactin, a c-Src substrate known to promote Arp2/3-mediated actin assembly in vitro, is expressed in osteoclasts and(More)
he ␤ 3 integrin cytoplasmic domain, and specifically S 752 , is critical for integrin localization and osteoclast (OC) function. Because growth factors such as mac-rophage colony–stimulating factor and hepatocyte growth factor affect integrin activation and function via inside-out signaling, a process requiring the ␤ integrin cytoplasmic tail, we examined(More)