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TREM2 is an immunoreceptor expressed on osteoclasts (OC) and microglia that transmits intracellular signals through the adaptor DAP12. Individuals with genetic mutations inactivating TREM2 or DAP12 develop the Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) with cystic-like lesions of the bone and brain demyelination that lead to fractures and presenile dementia. The mechanisms(More)
Osteoclasts are essential for bone dynamics and calcium homeostasis. The cells form a tight seal on the bone surface, onto which they secrete acid and proteases to resorb bone. The seal is associated with a ring of actin filaments. Cortactin, a c-Src substrate known to promote Arp2/3-mediated actin assembly in vitro, is expressed in osteoclasts and(More)
The development of multiple myeloma (MM) bone disease is mediated by increased number and activity of osteoclasts (OCs). Using an in vitro osteoclastogenesis model consisting of unstimulated and unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with MM, we showed that T cells support the formation of OCs with longer survival. Different(More)
In the last two decades, numerous scientists have highlighted the interactions between bone and immune cells as well as their overlapping regulatory mechanisms. For example, osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, are derived from the same myeloid precursor cells that give rise to macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. On the other hand, osteoblasts, the(More)
The beta3 integrin cytoplasmic domain, and specifically S752, is critical for integrin localization and osteoclast (OC) function. Because growth factors such as macrophage colony-stimulating factor and hepatocyte growth factor affect integrin activation and function via inside-out signaling, a process requiring the beta integrin cytoplasmic tail, we(More)
The Vav family of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors is thought to orchestrate signaling events downstream of lymphocyte antigen receptors. Elucidation of Vav function has been obscured thus far by the expression of three highly related family members. We generated mice lacking all Vav family proteins and show that Vav-null mice produce no functional T(More)
Excessive bone loss in arthritic diseases is mostly due to abnormal activation of the immune system leading to stimulation of osteoclasts. While phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) isoforms are known modulators of T and B lymphocyte-mediated immune responses, we found that blockade of PLCgamma enzymatic activity also blocks early osteoclast development and(More)
Osteoclasts (OCs) function to reabsorb bone and are responsible for the bone loss associated with inflammatory arthritis and osteoporosis. OC numbers are elevated in most disorders of accelerated bone destruction, reflecting altered rates of precursor differentiation and apoptosis. Both of these processes are regulated by the JNK family of MAP kinases. In(More)
Oxidative burst, a critical antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils, involves the rapid generation and release of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) by the NADPH oxidase complex. Genetic mutations in an NADPH oxidase subunit, gp91 (also referred to as NOX2), are associated with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), which is characterized by recurrent and(More)
Blockade of osteoclast (OC) activity efficiently decreases tumor burden as well as associated bone erosion in immune-compromised animals bearing human osteolytic cancers. In this study, we showed that modulation of antitumor T-cell responses alters tumor growth in bone, regardless of OC status, by using genetic and pharmacologic models. PLCγ2(-/-) mice,(More)