Roberta A. Mittelstaedt

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Furan, a potent rodent liver carcinogen, is found in many cooked food items and thus represents a human cancer risk. Mechanisms for furan carcinogenicity were investigated in male F344 rats using the in vivo Comet and micronucleus assays, combined with analysis of histopathological and gene expression changes. In addition, formamidopyrimidine DNA(More)
We previously reported that rat spleen T-cells and peripheral red blood cells that are deficient in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) synthesis [presumed mutants for the phosphatidylinositol glycan complementation group A gene (Pig-A)] could be detected by flow cytometry (FCM) as cells negative for GPI-linked markers (CD48 and CD59, respectively). To(More)
Malachite green, a triphenylmethane dye used in aquaculture as an antifungal agent, is rapidly reduced in vivo to leucomalachite green. Previous studies in which female B6C3F1 mice were fed malachite green produced relatively high levels of liver DNA adducts after 28 days, but no significant induction of liver tumors was detected in a 2-year feeding study.(More)
N-Hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-AAF) is the proximate carcinogenic metabolite of the powerful rat liver carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene. In this study, transgenic Big Blue(R) rats were used to examine the relationship between in vivo mutagenicity and DNA adduct formation by N-OH-AAF in the target liver compared with that in nontarget tissues. Male(More)
The fungal toxin, Ochratoxin A (OTA), is a common contaminant in human food and animal feed. The present study evaluated micronucleus (MN) induction by OTA in comparison with its ability to induce cytotoxicity and DNA damage in two mammalian cell lines, CHO-K1-BH(4) Chinese hamster ovary cells and TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells. Micronuclei were evaluated(More)
Furan is a multispecies liver carcinogen whose cancer mode of action (MOA) is unclear. A major metabolite of furan is a direct acting mutagen; however, it is not known if genotoxicity is a key step in the tumors that result from exposure to furan. In order to address this question, transgenic Big Blue rats were treated by gavage five times a week for 8(More)
In previous studies, we have shown that zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine; AZT), but not lamivudine [(-)2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine; 3TC], is genotoxic when administered to neonatal mice, and that 3TC when coadministered with AZT does not alter the responses observed with AZT alone (Von Tungeln et al. [2002] Carcinogenesis 23:1427-1432). We now have(More)
We have developed a limiting dilution clonal assay for determining the frequency of 6-thioguanine-resistant (TGr) lymphocytes produced in rats by in vivo exposure to genotoxic agents. Spleen lymphocytes were isolated from female Fischer 344 rats and were cultured with 1 microgram/ml of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) for 40 hr. Northern blot analysis revealed that(More)
Thiotepa is a bifunctional alkylating anticancer drug that is a rodent carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. In order to determine the sensitivity of mutant induction in the Hprt lymphocyte assay for detecting tumorigenic doses of thiotepa, Fischer 344 rats were treated for 4 weeks with thiotepa using a procedure adapted from a carcinogenesis(More)
Azidothymidine (AZT) is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) that is used for reducing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus I. Combinations of AZT and 3'-thiacytidine (3TC) are even more effective than AZT alone. AZT, however, is a mutagen and carcinogen in rodent models and 3TC can increase the genotoxicity of AZT.(More)