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The mammalian circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), has two subdivisions. The core is located above the optic chiasm, receives primary and secondary visual afferents, and contains neurons producing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and gastrin-releasing peptide. The shell largely surrounds the core, receives input from(More)
Murine and canine narcolepsy can be caused by mutations of the hypocretin (Hcrt) (orexin) precursor or Hcrt receptor genes. In contrast to these animal models, most human narcolepsy is not familial, is discordant in identical twins, and has not been linked to mutations of the Hcrt system. Thus, the cause of human narcolepsy remains unknown. Here we show(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principal circadian pacemaker of the mammalian circadian timing system. The SCN is composed of two anatomically and functionally distinct subdivisions, designated core and shell, which can be distinguished on the basis of their chemoarchitecture and connections in the rat. In the present study, we examine the(More)
The circadian timing system imposes a temporal organization on physiological processes and behavior. The two major nuclei of the system are the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the lateral geniculate complex and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. In this study, we demonstrate that neurons of both nuclei colocalize GABA with peptides. In(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is a dominant circadian pacemaker in the mammalian brain controlling the rest-activity cycle and a series of physiological and endocrine functions to provide a foundation for the successful elaboration of adaptive sleep and waking behavior. The SCN is anatomically and functionally organized into two(More)
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) receives input from all major components of the circadian timing system, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the intergeniculate leaflet and the retina. For a better understanding of the role of this nucleus in circadian timing, we examined the distribution of its efferent projections using the(More)
The circadian timing of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is modulated by its neural inputs. In the present study, we examine the organization of the neural inputs to the rat SCN using both retrograde and anterograde tracing methods. After Fluoro-Gold injections into the SCN, retrogradely labeled neurons are present in a number of brain areas, including the(More)
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a behavioral state characterized by cerebral cortical activation with dreaming as an associated behavior. The brainstem mechanisms involved in the generation of REM sleep are well-known, but the forebrain mechanisms that might distinguish it from waking are not well understood. We report here a positron emission tomography(More)
The distribution of retinohypothalamic projections and the organization of the suprachiasmatic region of the hypothalamus was investigated in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Retinohypothalamic projections (RHT) were studied by two anterograde tracing methods, and hypothalamic organization was investigated immunohistochemically with antisera against a(More)