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Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land(More)
Ketimine reductase (E.C. 1.5.1.25) was purified to apparent homogeneity from lamb forebrain by means of a rapid multi-step chromatography protocol. The purified enzyme was identified by MS/MS (mass spectrometry) as μ-crystallin. The identity was confirmed by heterologously expressing human μ-crystallin in Escherichia coli and subsequent chromatographic(More)
Chlorophylls are essential for light-harvesting and energy transduction in photosynthesis. Four chemically distinct varieties have been known for the past 60 years. Here we report isolation of a fifth, which we designate chlorophyll f. Its in vitro absorption (706 nanometers) and fluorescence (722 nanometers) maxima are red-shifted compared to all other(More)
By targeting gene cassettes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) directly from environmentally derived DNA, we are able to amplify entire open reading frames (ORFs) independently of prior sequence knowledge. Approximately 10% of the mobile genes recovered by these means can be attributed to known protein families. Here we describe the characterization of two(More)
Two Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants defective in CHLM encoding Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase (MgPMT) were identified. The mutants, one with a missense mutation (chlM-1) and a second mutant with a splicing defect (chlM-2), do not accumulate chlorophyll, are yellow in the dark and dim light, and their growth is inhibited at higher light(More)
Mg-chelatase catalyzes the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX at the first committed step of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. It consists of three subunits: I, D, and H. The I subunit belongs to the AAA protein superfamily (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) that is known to form hexameric ring structures in an ATP-dependant(More)
The chemical structural differences distinguishing chlorophylls in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are either formyl substitution (chlorophyll b, d, and f) or the degree of unsaturation (8-vinyl chlorophyll a and b) of a side chain of the macrocycle compared with chlorophyll a. We conducted an investigation of the conversion of vinyl to formyl groups(More)
Acaryochloris marina, a unicellular oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacterium, has uniquely adapted to far-red light-enriched environments using red-shifted chlorophyll d. To understand red-light use in Acaryochloris, the genome of this cyanobacterium was searched for red/far-red light photoreceptors from the phytochrome family, resulting in identification of(More)
Prostate cancer is one of the male killing diseases and early detection of prostate cancer is the key for better treatment and lower cost. However, the number of prostate cancer cells is low at the early stage, so it is very challenging to detect. In this study, we successfully designed and developed upconversion immune-nanohybrids (UINBs) with sustainable(More)