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Systematic annotation of gene regulatory elements is a major challenge in genome science. Direct mapping of chromatin modification marks and transcriptional factor binding sites genome-wide has successfully identified specific subtypes of regulatory elements. In Drosophila several pioneering studies have provided genome-wide identification of Polycomb(More)
Insulators are DNA sequences that control the interactions among genomic regulatory elements and act as chromatin boundaries. A thorough understanding of their location and function is necessary to address the complexities of metazoan gene regulation. We studied by ChIP-chip the genome-wide binding sites of 6 insulator-associated proteins-dCTCF, CP190,(More)
Methanogenesis, the biological production of methane, plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle and contributes significantly to global warming. The majority of methane in nature is derived from acetate. Here we report the complete genome sequence of an acetate-utilizing methanogen, Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A. Methanosarcineae are the most(More)
We show that the Drosophila gene rhea, isolated because its wing blister phenotype is typical of mutants affecting integrin function, encodes talin. Embryos deficient in talin have very similar phenotypes to integrin (betaPS) null embryos, including failure in germ band retraction and muscle detachment. We demonstrate that talin is not required for the(More)
Insulator or enhancer-blocking elements are proposed to play an important role in the regulation of transcription by preventing inappropriate enhancer/promoter interaction. The zinc-finger protein CTCF is well studied in vertebrates as an enhancer blocking factor, but Drosophila CTCF has only been characterised recently. To date only one endogenous binding(More)
Insulator sequences guide the function of distantly located enhancer elements to the appropriate target genes by blocking inappropriate interactions. In Drosophila, five different insulator binding proteins have been identified, Zw5, BEAF-32, GAGA factor, Su(Hw) and dCTCF. Only dCTCF has a known conserved counterpart in vertebrates. Here we find that the(More)
Polycomb-group (PcG) and Trithorax-group proteins together form a maintenance machinery that is responsible for stable heritable states of gene activity. While the best-studied target genes are the Hox genes of the Antennapedia and Bithorax complexes, a large number of key developmental genes are also Polycomb (Pc) targets, indicating a widespread role for(More)
The nifS gene product (NIFS) is a pyridoxal phosphate binding enzyme that catalyzes the desulfurization of L-cysteine to yield L-alanine and sulfur. In Azotobacter vinelandii this activity is required for the full activation of the nitrogenase component proteins. Because the nitrogenase component proteins, Fe protein and MoFe protein, both contain(More)
Methanogenesis, the anaerobic production of methane from CO2 or simple carbon compounds, requires seven organic coenzymes. This review describes pathways for the biosynthesis of methanofuran, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydromethanopterin, coenzyme F420, coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) and coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoyl-L-threonine phosphate). Spectroscopic(More)
Archaea have been shown to produce isoprenoids from mevalonate; however, genome analysis has failed to identify several genes in the mevalonate pathway on the basis of sequence similarity. A predicted archaeal kinase, coded for by the MJ0044 gene, was associated with other mevalonate pathway genes in the archaea and was predicted to be the "missing"(More)