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BACKGROUND Improving the design and implementation of evidence-based practice depends on successful behaviour change interventions. This requires an appropriate method for characterising interventions and linking them to an analysis of the targeted behaviour. There exists a plethora of frameworks of behaviour change interventions, but it is not clear how(More)
Smoking cessation treatment is now integrated into many health-care systems and a major research effort is under way to improve current success rates. Until now results from randomized clinical trials have been reported in many different ways, leading to problems of interpretation. We propose six standard criteria comprising the 'Russell Standard' (RS).(More)
This article considers methodological issues relevant to the study of differential crash involvement and reviews the findings of research in this area. Aspects of both driving skill and driving style appear to contribute to crash risk. Of the former, hazard-perception latency appears to play an important role, and this may be attributable to generalized(More)
The mood and physical symptoms scale (MPSS) was developed in the early 1980s to assess cigarette withdrawal symptoms, and variants of it have been used for 20 years. To date, no paper has been published on the properties of the scale. To evaluate psychometric properties of MPSS and the interrelationship between the key tobacco withdrawal symptoms. The core(More)
Cassini has identified a geologically active province at the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. In images acquired by the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), this region is circumscribed by a chain of folded ridges and troughs at approximately 55 degrees S latitude. The terrain southward of this boundary is distinguished by its albedo and color contrasts,(More)
This review article examines the literature using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the temporal dynamics of the neurocognitive processes underpinning event-based prospective memory (PM). The successful encoding of delayed intentions is associated with slow wave activity over the frontal region in younger adults and this activity is attenuated(More)
AIM To assess the efficacy of World Wide Web-based tailored behavioral smoking cessation materials among nicotine patch users. DESIGN Two-group randomized controlled trial. SETTING World Wide Web in England and Republic of Ireland. PARTICIPANTS A total of 3971 subjects who purchased a particular brand of nicotine patch and logged-on to use a free(More)
This paper addresses methodological issues in the assessment of nicotine withdrawal and craving in clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. We define withdrawal as a syndrome of behavioral, affective, cognitive, and physiological symptoms, typically transient, emerging upon cessation or reduction of tobacco use and causing distress or impairment of(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose was to determine filter ventilation and the nicotine content of tobacco and their contribution to machine-smoked yields of cigarettes from the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. METHODS Ninety-two brands of cigarettes (32 American, 23 Canadian, and 37 British brands) were purchased at retail outlets in State College,(More)