Robert W. Sidwell

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Maternal viral infection is known to increase the risk for schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Using this observation in an animal model, we find that respiratory infection of pregnant mice (both BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains) with the human influenza virus yields offspring that display highly abnormal behavioral responses as adults. As in schizophrenia(More)
Recent reports indicate an association between second trimester human influenza viral infection and later development of schizophrenia. Postmortem human brain studies also provide evidence for reduction in Reelin mRNA (an important secretory protein responsible for normal lamination of the brain) in schizophrenic brains. We hypothesized that human influenza(More)
Epidemiological reports describe a strong association between prenatal human influenza viral infection and later development of schizophrenia. Postmodern human brain studies, however, indicate a lack of gliosis in schizophrenic brains presumably secondary to absence of glial cells during the second trimester viral infection in utero. We hypothesized that(More)
Virazole is a synthetic nucleoside active in tissue culture against at least 16 DNA and RNA viruses. Applied topically, it inhibits herpetic keratitis in rabbits and tail lesions induced by herpes, vaccinia, and vesicular stomatitis viruses in mice. Injected intraperitoneally into mice, it inhibits splenomegaly and hepatomegaly induced by Friend leukemia(More)
Schizophrenia and autism are neurodevelopmental disorders with genetic and environmental etiologies. Prenatal viral infection has been associated with both disorders. We investigated the effects of prenatal viral infection on gene regulation in offspring of Balb-c mice using microarray technology. The results showed significant upregulation of 21 genes and(More)
We investigated the role of maternal exposure to human influenza virus (H1N1) in C57BL/6 mice on Day 9 of pregnancy on pyramidal and nonpyramidal cell density, pyramidal nuclear area, and overall brain size in Day 0 neonates and 14-week-old progeny and compared them to sham-infected cohorts. Pyramidal cell density increased significantly (p < 0.0038) by(More)
The antiviral activity of the synthetic nucleoside, Virazole (1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide), against measles virus in Vero cell cultures was substantially reversed by xanthosine, guanosine, and to a slightly lesser extent by inosine. Virazole 5'-phosphate was subsequently found to be a potent competitive inhibitor of inosine(More)
The carbocyclic transition state sialic acid analog GS4071 ([3R,4R,5S]-4-acetamido-5-amino-3-[1-ethylpropoxy]-1-cyclohexane-1 -carboxylic acid), a potent influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor, was highly inhibitory to influenza A/NWS/33 (H1N1), A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2), A/Shangdong/09/93 (H3N2) and B/Hong Kong/5/72 viruses in Madin Darby canine kidney(More)
The recent reports from Hong Kong of an avian influenza virus which caused the death of six people has served to remind us of the constant threat of pandemics posed by influenza. Recently, structure-based drug design has resulted in the discovery of a new class of antiviral agents which specifically target the influenza virus neuraminidase. Two(More)
Changes in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were evaluated in two mouse models of viral encephalitis. The ability of sodium fluorescein (NaFl) to cross the BBB from the serum into the central nervous system was assayed in animals inoculated with virulent strains of either Banzi or Semliki Forest viruses. To test the hypothesis that(More)