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Organophosphorus nerve agents inhibit the activity of cholinesterases by phosphylation of the active site serine. In addition, sarin, cyclosarin, soman and tabun have been shown to phosphylate a tyrosine residue in albumin. Therapies against nerve agent poisoning include the use of oximes to reactivate inhibited cholinesterases by displacement of the(More)
Incubation of both sarin and soman with human plasma has shown that binding occurs to a tyrosine residue. Similar binding occurs when sarin and soman are incubated with human serum albumin. This binding may provide an important biological marker, which retains full structural information concerning the identity of the agent, in cases of allegations of(More)
The organophosphorus nerve agents sarin, soman, cyclosarin and tabun phosphylate a tyrosine residue on albumin in human blood. These adducts may offer relatively long-lived biological markers of nerve agent exposure that do not ‘age’ rapidly, and which are not degraded by therapy with oximes. Sensitive methods for the detection of these adducts have been(More)
A sensitive method has been developed for the trace analysis of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids, metabolites of nerve agents, in urine using a benchtop ion trap mass spectrometer. The acids were isolated from urine by simple solid phase extraction and converted to their pentafluorobenzyl esters. An ion trap mass spectrometer in selected reaction monitoring mode(More)
A method is described for the analysis of b-lyase metabolites of sulfur mustard, 1-methylsulfinyl-2- [2-(methylthio)ethylsulfonyl]ethane and 1,1'-sulfonylbis [2-(methylsulfinyl)ethane], in human urine. The analytes were concentrated from urine on an ENV+ solid-phase extraction cartridge and analyzed by liquid chromatography-positive ion electrospray-tandem(More)
Samples of clothing, grave debris, soil and munition fragments, collected from the Kurdish village of Birjinni, were analysed by GC-MS with selected ion monitoring (SIM) for traces of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. Positive analyses were confirmed, where possible, by full scan mass spectra, or at low concentrations by additional(More)
1. Analytical methods were developed for the detection of N-terminal valine and histidine adducts in haemoglobin alkylated with sulphur mustard. 2. N-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)-N-terminal valine was selectively cleaved from globin with the Edman reagent pentafluorophenyl isothiocyanate. The resulting thiohydantoin derivative was analysed by high resolution(More)
1. Samples of urine from two human subjects accidentally exposed to sulphur mustard were analysed for metabolites derived from hydrolysis (thiodiglycol, thiodiglycol sulphoxide), conjugation with glutathione (1,1'-sulphonylbis [2-S-(N-acetylcysteinyl)ethane]) and from further metabolism of glutathione conjugates by the beta-lyase pathway(More)
The urinary excretion profiles of some metabolites of sulfur mustard were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after cutaneous application of sulfur mustard in rats. Excretion profiles of the individual metabolites thiodiglycol and thiodiglycol sulfoxide, derived from the hydrolysis of sulfur mustard, were determined in different groups of(More)
1. Human blood was incubated in vitro with a 1:1 mixture of [35S,12C4]- and [13C4]-sulphur mustard. Alkylated globin, containing the 2-hydroxyethylthioethyl (HETE) moiety, was isolated from the blood incubate following lysis of the erythrocytes and acidification with HCl in isopropanol. 2. The alkylated globin was hydrolysed with Pronase E to give a digest(More)