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Memory B cells formed in response to microbial antigens provide immunity to later infections; however, the inability to detect rare endogenous antigen-specific cells limits current understanding of this process. Using an antigen-based technique to enrich these cells, we found that immunization with a model protein generated B memory cells that expressed(More)
In response to an assault by foreign organisms, peripheral B cells can change their antibody affinity and isotype by somatically mutating their genomic DNA. The ability of a cell to modify its DNA is exceptional in light of the potential consequences of genetic alterations to cause human disease and cancer. Thus, as expected, this mechanism of antibody(More)
The dnaN159 allele encodes a temperature-sensitive mutant form of the β sliding clamp (β159). SOS-induced levels of DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) confer UV sensitivity upon the dnaN159 strain, while levels of Pol IV ∼4-fold higher than those induced by the SOS response severely impede its growth. Here, we used mutations in Pol IV that disrupted specific(More)
The actions of Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV) in mutagenesis are managed by its interaction with the beta sliding clamp. In the structure reported by Bunting et al. [EMBO J (2003) 22:5883-5892], the C-tail of Pol IV contacts a hydrophobic cleft on the clamp, while residues V303-P305 reach over the dimer interface to contact the rim of the(More)
Repetitive DNA sequences in the immunoglobulin switch mu region form RNA-containing secondary structures and undergo hypermutation by activation-induced deaminase (AID). To examine how DNA structure affects transcription and hypermutation, we mapped the position of RNA polymerase II molecules and mutations across a 5-kb region spanning the intronic enhancer(More)
Escherichia coli strains expressing the mutant beta159-sliding clamp protein (containing both a G66E and a G174A substitution) are temperature sensitive for growth and display altered DNA polymerase (pol) usage. We selected for suppressors of the dnaN159 allele able to grow at 42 degrees C, and identified four intragenic suppressor alleles. One of these(More)
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates diversity of immunoglobulin genes through deamination of cytosine to uracil. Two opposing models have been proposed for the deamination of DNA or RNA by AID. Although most data support DNA deamination, there is no physical evidence of uracil residues in immunoglobulin genes. Here we demonstrate their presence by(More)
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) deaminates cytosine to uracil in immunoglobulin genes. Uracils in DNA can be recognized by uracil DNA glycosylase and abasic endonuclease to produce single-strand breaks. The breaks are repaired either faithfully by DNA base excision repair (BER) or mutagenically to produce somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch(More)
The Escherichia colibeta sliding clamp is proposed to play an important role in regulating DNA polymerase traffic at the replication fork. As part of an ongoing effort to understand how organisms manage the actions of their multiple DNA polymerases, we examined the ability of several mutant forms of the beta clamp to function in DNA polymerase V- (pol V-)(More)
Variable (V) genes of immunoglobulins undergo somatic hypermutation by activation-induced deaminase (AID) to generate amino acid substitutions that encode antibodies with increased affinity for antigen. Hypermutation is restricted to germinal center B cells and cannot be recapitulated in ex vivo-activated splenic cells, even though the latter express high(More)