Robert W Maul

Learn More
Memory B cells formed in response to microbial antigens provide immunity to later infections; however, the inability to detect rare endogenous antigen-specific cells limits current understanding of this process. Using an antigen-based technique to enrich these cells, we found that immunization with a model protein generated B memory cells that expressed(More)
Escherichia coli strains expressing the mutant beta159-sliding clamp protein (containing both a G66E and a G174A substitution) are temperature sensitive for growth and display altered DNA polymerase (pol) usage. We selected for suppressors of the dnaN159 allele able to grow at 42 degrees C, and identified four intragenic suppressor alleles. One of these(More)
In response to an assault by foreign organisms, peripheral B cells can change their antibody affinity and isotype by somatically mutating their genomic DNA. The ability of a cell to modify its DNA is exceptional in light of the potential consequences of genetic alterations to cause human disease and cancer. Thus, as expected, this mechanism of antibody(More)
Enzymes of the AID/APOBEC family, characterized by the targeted deamination of cytosine to generate uracil within DNA, mediate numerous critical immune responses. One family member, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), selectively introduces uracil into antibody variable and switch regions, promoting antibody diversity through somatic hypermutation(More)
The Escherichia colibeta sliding clamp is proposed to play an important role in regulating DNA polymerase traffic at the replication fork. As part of an ongoing effort to understand how organisms manage the actions of their multiple DNA polymerases, we examined the ability of several mutant forms of the beta clamp to function in DNA polymerase V- (pol V-)(More)
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) deaminates cytosine to uracil in immunoglobulin genes. Uracils in DNA can be recognized by uracil DNA glycosylase and abasic endonuclease to produce single-strand breaks. The breaks are repaired either faithfully by DNA base excision repair (BER) or mutagenically to produce somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch(More)
Nucleic acid cytidine deaminases of the activation-induced deaminase (AID)/APOBEC family are critical players in active and innate immune responses, playing roles as target-directed, purposeful mutators. AID specifically deaminates the host immunoglobulin (Ig) locus to evolve antibody specificity, whereas its close relative, APOBEC3G (A3G), lethally mutates(More)
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) is a B-cell-specific enzyme required for initiating the mechanisms of affinity maturation and isotype switching of antibodies. AID functions by deaminating cytosine to uracil in DNA, which initiates a cascade of events resulting in mutations and strand breaks in the immunoglobulin loci. There is an intricate interplay(More)
Low-fidelity DNA polymerases introduce nucleotide substitutions in immunoglobulin variable regions during somatic hypermutation. Although DNA polymerase (pol) η is the major low-fidelity polymerase, other DNA polymerases may also contribute. Existing data are contradictory as to whether pol ζ is involved. We reasoned that the presence of pol η may mask the(More)
The Escherichia coli beta sliding clamp protein is proposed to play an important role in effecting switches between different DNA polymerases during replication, repair, and translesion DNA synthesis. We recently described how strains bearing the dnaN159 allele, which encodes a mutant form of the beta clamp (beta159), display a UV-sensitive phenotype that(More)