Learn More
Hypercapnia evokes an uncomfortable sensation, termed 'air hunger'. We examined the relationship between PETCO2 and ratings of air hunger intensity under three conditions in 16 subjects: 1) mechanical ventilation with hyperoxic gas mixtures at fixed frequency and tidal volume (twice resting ventilation), 2) the same mechanical ventilation, but with hypoxic(More)
Although dyspnea is a common and troubling symptom, our understanding of the neurophysiology of dyspnea is woefully incomplete. Most measurements of dyspnea treat it as a single entity. Although the multidimensional dyspnea concept has been mentioned for many decades, only recently has the concept been the subject of experimental tests. Emerging evidence(More)
Anecdotal observations suggest that hypoxia does not elicit dyspnea. An opposing view is that any stimulus to medullary respiratory centers generates dyspnea via "corollary discharge" to higher centers; absence of dyspnea during low inspired Po(2) may result from increased ventilation and hypocapnia. We hypothesized that, with fixed ventilation, hypoxia and(More)
1. The cardiorespiratory response to imagination of previously performed treadmill exercise was measured in six competitive sportsmen and six non-athletic males. This was compared with the response to a control task (imaging letters) and a task not involving imagination ('treadmill sound only'). 2. In athletes, imagined exercise produced increases in(More)
Abdominal muscle activity was investigated during resting tidal breathing and speech production in upright and supine body positions in five male and five female young adult subjects. Results showed that patterns of abdominal electromyographic (EMG) activity were highly dependent on body position. Data for resting tidal breathing resembled those of previous(More)
The tolerance of totally curarized subjects for prolonged breath hold is viewed by many as evidence that respiratory muscle contraction is essential to generate the sensation of breathlessness. Although conflicting evidence exists, none of it was obtained during total neuromuscular block. We completely paralyzed four normal, unsedated subjects with(More)
A number of investigators have proposed that the sense of respiratory discomfort accompanying hypercapnia depends on respiratory mechanoreceptors which inform the sensory cortex of reflex increases in breathing. To test this hypothesis, we studied subjects whose respiratory muscles were paralyzed, and who were thus unable to increase breathing in response(More)
RATIONALE Opioids are commonly used to relieve dyspnea, but clinical data are mixed and practice varies widely. OBJECTIVES Evaluate the effect of morphine on dyspnea and ventilatory drive under well-controlled laboratory conditions. METHODS Six healthy volunteers received morphine (0.07 mg/kg) and placebo intravenously on separate days (randomized,(More)
Recent evidence suggests that inhaled furosemide relieves dyspnoea in patients and in normal subjects made dyspnoeic by external resistive loads combined with added dead-space. Furosemide sensitizes lung inflation receptors in rats, and lung inflation reduces air hunger in humans. We therefore hypothesised that inhaled furosemide acts on the air hunger(More)