Learn More
Issues in Ecology is designed to report, in language understandable by non-scientists, the consensus of a panel of scientific experts on issues relevant to the environment. Issues in Ecology is supported by the Pew Scholars in Conservation Biology program and by the Ecological Society of America. It is published at irregular intervals, as reports are(More)
  • Peter M Vitousek, John D Aber, Robert W Howarth, David W Schindler, William H Schlesinger, David G Tilman
  • 1999
Nitrogen is a key element controlling the species composition, diversity, dynamics, and functioning of many terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Many of the original plant species living in these ecosystems are adapted to, and function optimally in, soils and solutions with low levels of available nitrogen. The growth and dynamics of herbivore(More)
  • Robert W Howarth, Renee Santoro, Anthony Ingraffea, R W Howarth, R Santoro, A Ingraffea
  • 2010
We evaluate the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas obtained by high-volume hydraulic fracturing from shale formations, focusing on methane emissions. Natural gas is composed largely of methane, and 3.6% to 7.9% of the methane from shale-gas production escapes to the atmosphere in venting and leaks over the lifetime of a well. These methane emissions(More)
Based on noninvasive eddy correlation measurements at a marine and a freshwater site, this study documents the control that current flow and light have on sediment–water oxygen fluxes in permeable sediments. The marine sediment was exposed to tidal-driven current and light, and the oxygen flux varied from night to day between 229 and 78 mmol m 22 d 21. A(More)
The past few decades have seen a massive increase in coastal eutrophication globally, leading to widespread hypoxia and anoxia, habitat degradation, alteration of food-web structure, loss of biodiversity, and increased frequency, spatial extent, and duration of harmful algal blooms (Howarth et al. In this paper, I briefly review information on the sources(More)
c New York State's all-purpose energy can be derived from wind, water, and sunlight. c The conversion reduces NYS end-use power demand by $ 37%. c The plan creates more jobs than lost since most energy will be from in state. c The plan creates long-term energy price stability since fuel costs will be zero. c The plan decreases air pollution deaths 4000/yr(More)
In April 2011, we published the first peer-reviewed analysis of the greenhouse gas footprint (GHG) of shale gas, concluding that the climate impact of shale gas may be worse than that of other fossil fuels such as coal and oil because of methane emissions. We noted the poor quality of publicly available data to support our analysis and called for further(More)
This study presents a roadmap for converting California's all-purpose (electricity, transportation, heating/ cooling, and industry) energy infrastructure to one derived entirely from wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) generating electricity and electrolytic hydrogen. California's available WWS resources are first evaluated. A mix of WWS generators is then(More)