Robert W Howard

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Males traditionally predominate at upper achievement levels. One general view holds that this is due only to various social factors such as the 'glass ceiling' and lack of female role models. Another view holds that it occurs partly because of innate ability differences, with more males being at upper ability levels. In the last few decades, women have(More)
The power law of practice holds that a power function best interrelates skill performance and amount of practice. However, the law's validity and generality are moot. Some researchers argue that it is an artifact of averaging individual exponential curves while others question whether the law generalizes to complex skills and to performance measures other(More)
Bilalic and McLeod's arguments fall short on several grounds. There are excellent logical reasons to expect strong ability/chess expertise links and specific research evidence to date is sparse, with mixed findings. Data are presented from Georgia, which has a high female participation rate in chess, which suggest that differing gender motivation levels and(More)
The present study examined generalization along a dimension based on a verbal concept of occupational status. The status dimension was scaled by students who placed occupation names into five status categories, Category 1 representing highest status and Category 5 the lowest status. In two experiments, key presses by students were occasionally reinforced(More)
Chess is an oft-used study domain in psychology and artificial intelligence because it is well defined, its performance rating systems allow ea sy identification o f experts and their development, andchess playing is a complex intellectual task However, usable computerized chess data have been very limited. The present article has two aims. The first is to(More)
Expertise typically develops slowly over years, and controlled experiments to study its development may be impractical. Researchers often use a correlational, retrospective recall method in which participants recall career data, sometimes over many years before. However, recall accuracy is uncertain. The present study investigated the accuracy of recalled(More)
Evidence that chess expertise rests on practice alone mostly comes from studies using a correlational retrospective recall paradigm, which confounds amount of study with number of games played and possible innate talent. Researchers also often use latest performance rating and include participants who play and study little. Study 1 partially replicated such(More)
zufiihren. Unter diesen Bedingungen ist es uns erstmals gelungen, ein IRSpektrum yon gasf6rmigem ClzO6 aufzunehmen (Fig. 1), so dab nun auch eine detaillierte Strukturaussage m6glich ist. Danach liegt C1206 in der Gasphase als gemischtes Anhydrid der Chlorund Perchlors/iure vor. Der m6gliche Anteil an C103-Radikalen in einem C1206 ~ 2C103-Gleichgewicht(More)