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In nonhuman primate social groups, biological differences related to social status have proven useful for investigating the mechanisms of sensitivity to various disease states. Physiological and neurobiological differences between dominant and subordinate monkeys have been interpreted in the context of chronic social stress. The present experiments were(More)
BACKGROUND Brain imaging and behavioral studies suggest an inverse relationship between dopamine (DA) D2/D3 receptors and vulnerability to cocaine abuse, although most research has used males. For example, male monkeys that become dominant in a social group have significant elevations in D2/D3 receptor availability and are less vulnerable to cocaine(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic cocaine use is associated with neurobiological and cognitive deficits that persist into abstinence, hindering success of behavioral treatment strategies and perhaps increasing likelihood of relapse. The effects of current cocaine use and abstinence on neurobiology and cognition are not well characterized. METHODS Adult male rhesus(More)
Chronic treatment with the indirect dopamine agonist d-amphetamine can reduce cocaine use in clinical trials and, in preclinical studies in laboratory animals, attenuates daily cocaine self-administration. The present study extended previous results to conditions designed to reflect a more clinically relevant experience of cocaine exposure and d-amphetamine(More)
Although dopamine D(3) receptors have been associated with cocaine abuse, little is known about the consequences of chronic cocaine on functional activity of D(3) receptor-preferring compounds. This study examined the behavioral effects of D(3) receptor-selective 4-phenylpiperazines with differing in vitro functional profiles in adult male rhesus monkeys(More)
Animal models have provided valuable information related to trait and state variables associated with vulnerability to drug addiction. Our brain imaging studies in monkeys have implicated D2 receptors in cocaine addiction. For example, an inverse relationship between D2 receptor availability and rates of cocaine self-administration has been documented.(More)
Cocaine use is associated with impaired cognitive function, which may negatively impact treatment outcomes. One pharmacological strategy to improve cognition involves nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. However, the effects of chronic cocaine exposure on nAChR distribution and function have not been characterized. Thus, one goal of this(More)
Cocaine self-administration alters brain dopaminergic and serotonergic function primarily in mesolimbic and prefrontal brain regions whereas 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) self-administration predominately alters brain serotonergic function in a more widespread distribution across cortical regions. We previously reported that, compared to(More)
Subtraction of serial scores, Least Squares Estimators, and Best Linear Unbiased Predictors (BLUPs) were compared for estimating rates of cognitive change for Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) scores for 299 probable Alzheimer's disease patients. The BLUPs provided cleaner group estimates of subjects' intercepts and slopes and(More)
The current review highlights the utility of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study the neurobiological substrates underlying vulnerability to cocaine addiction and subsequent adaptations following chronic cocaine self-administration in nonhuman primate models of cocaine abuse. Environmental (e.g., social rank) and sex-specific influences on(More)