Robert W Gensemer

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During recent years, the biotic ligand model (BLM) has been proposed as a tool to evaluate quantitatively the manner in which water chemistry affects the speciation and biological availability of metals in aquatic systems. This is an important consideration because it is the bioavailability and bioreactivity of metals that control their potential to cause(More)
The mitigating effect of increasing hardness on metal toxicity is reflected in water quality criteria in the United States over the range of 25-400 mgl(-1) (as CaCO(3)). However, waters in the arid west of the US frequently exceed 400 mgl(-1) hardness, and the applicability of hardness-toxicity relationships in these waters is unknown. Acute toxicity tests(More)
Worldwide transfer and introduction of non-indigenous species in ballast water causes significant environmental and economic impact. One way to address this problem is to remove or inactivate organisms that are found in ballast water. In this study, 3 experiments were conducted in Puget Sound, Washington, USA, using a prototype ozone treatment system(More)
The ability of a commercial (Aldrich Chemical Co.) humic acid (AHA) to ameliorate the photo-induced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined using Lemna gibba L. (G3). Plants were exposed to anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene both with and without AHA and grown under visible light as well as lighting that simulates relative abundances of(More)
In this study, the response of zooplankton communities to single applications of liquid creosote in model aquatic ecosystems (microcosms) was evaluated. Liquid creosote was applied to 14 microcosms at concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 109 mg/L. Two microcosms served as controls. Zooplankton samples were collected from each microcosm on days 7 and 1 before(More)
We assessed the response of phytoplankton communities in aquatic microcosms to single applications of liquid creosote. The creosote was applied to 14 microcosms at concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 109 mg/L. Two microcosms served as controls. Phytoplankton samples were collected from each microcosm one week and 1 d before treatment and at 7 and 21 d after(More)
Creosote has been used extensively as an industrial wood preservative for the protection of marine pilings, railway ties, and utility poles and is a common source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. At present, there is little information by which to judge the potential for creosote leached from impregnated pilings to cause(More)
We examined whether the sensitivity of Ceriodaphnia dubia to copper toxicity was influenced by the hardness of the water in which they were reared or in which they were exposed. Organisms cultured in very hard water were 1.5-fold less sensitive to copper than those in moderately hard water. However, the hardness of the exposure water had a greater(More)
To assess photosynthesis as a bioindicator of toxicity from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the response of chlorophyll-a fluorescence to creosote exposure was compared with effects on population-level plant growth. Large, outdoor, freshwater microcosms containing Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) received either a single application or(More)
Ballast water transport of nonindigenous species (NIS) is recognized as a significant contributor to biological invasions and a threat to coastal ecosystems. Recently, the use of ozone as an oxidant to eliminate NIS from ballast while ships are in transit has been considered. We determined the toxicity of ozone in artificial seawater (ASW) for five species(More)