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Absfruct-An improved variation on the carry look-ahead adder has been proposed by Ling. Ling's approach is based on the propagation of a composite term in place of the conventional look-ahead carry. This approach gives an adder that is faster and less expensive. In this paper, Ling's adder is introduced and described in a general manner in order to expose(More)
Here we summarise the properties and algorithms of the Gray code. Descriptions are given of the Gray code definition, algorithms and circuits for generating the code and for conversion between binary and Gray code, for incrementing, counting, and adding Gray code words. Some interesting applications of the code are also treated. Java implementations of the(More)
"Virtual memory" is a computing term which has come into increasing use in recent years. Unfortunately, like other new expressions, its use often causes controversy and misunderstanding, for it is used to mean different things by different people. Not long ago when one major computer vendor announced the introduction of the new technique of 'virtual(More)
This surveys algorithms and circuits for integer division in special cases. These include division by constants, small divisors, exact divisors, and cases where the divisor and the number base have a special relationship. The related operation of remainder is also covered. Various prior techniques are treated in a common framework. Worked examples are(More)
A description is given of extensions to the architecture of Amdahl's first mainframe computers, which were hard-wired implementations of the IBM System/370 architecture, and the why's and how's of their development are examined. The latest architecture helps maintain compatibility with a changing standard. Its multiple-domain facility allows multiple(More)
John R. Womersley's career epitomized how numerical and statistical methods came into widespread use from the 1930s, in Britain as in other Western countries. As an applied mathematician and then a manager of mathematicians and statisticians, in war and in peacetime, Womersley and his career reflect the major trends in British applied mathematics,(More)
roducts from IBM have, for more than 20 years, taken the major P share of the general-purpose mainframe computer market. This continual dominance by one supplier has meant that the interfaces between its system components have become de facto standards. Any manufacturer wishing to supply hardware or software products to the major portion of this market must(More)
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