Robert W. Cross

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BACKGROUND Lassa fever (LF), an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002) ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in an area with the world's highest(More)
Lassa fever (LF) is a severe viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV). The LF program at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in Eastern Sierra Leone currently provides diagnostic services and clinical care for more than 500 suspected LF cases per year. Nearly two-thirds of suspected LF patients presenting to the LF Ward test negative for either(More)
Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic agent in the family Paramyxoviridae that is maintained in nature by bats. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India, and Bangladesh and have been associated with 40 to 75% case fatality rates. There are currently no vaccines or postexposure treatments licensed for combating human NiV infection.(More)
Recently, we reported the discovery and characterization of Tulane virus (TV), a novel rhesus calicivirus (CV) (T. Farkas, K. Sestak, C. Wei, and X. Jiang, J. Virol. 82:5408-5416, 2008). TV grows well in tissue culture, and it represents a new genus within Caliciviridae, with the proposed name of Recovirus. We also reported a high prevalence of CV(More)
Lassa fever is a severe multisystem disease that often has haemorrhagic manifestations. The epitopes of the Lassa virus (LASV) surface glycoproteins recognized by naturally infected human hosts have not been identified or characterized. Here we have cloned 113 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for LASV glycoproteins from memory B cells of Lassa(More)
Small-animal models have been developed for several Filoviridae species; however, serial adaptation was required to produce lethal infection. These adapted viruses have sequence changes in several genes, including those that modulate the host immune response. Nonhuman primate models do not require adaptation of filoviruses. Here, we describe lethal models(More)
BACKGROUND Rodent models that accurately reflect human filovirus infection are needed as early screens for medical countermeasures. Prior work in rodents with the Zaire species of Ebola virus (ZEBOV) primarily used inbred mice and guinea pigs to model disease. However, these inbred species do not show some of the important features of primate ZEBOV(More)
BACKGROUND Phylogenetic comparisons of known Marburg virus (MARV) strains reveal 2 distinct genetic lineages: Ravn and the Lake Victoria Marburg complex (eg, Musoke, Popp, and Angola strains). Nucleotide variances of >20% between Ravn and other MARV genomes suggest that differing virulence between lineages may accompany this genetic divergence. To date,(More)
The viral determinants that contribute to Nipah virus (NiV)-mediated disease are poorly understood compared with other paramyxoviruses. Here we use recombinant NiVs (rNiVs) to examine the contributions of the NiV V and W proteins to NiV pathogenesis in a ferret model. We show that a V-deficient rNiV is susceptible to the innate immune response in vitro and(More)
BACKGROUND Throughout the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, major gaps were exposed in the availability of validated rapid diagnostic platforms, protective vaccines, and effective therapeutic agents. These gaps potentiated the development of prototype rapid lateral flow immunodiagnostic (LFI) assays that are true point-of-contact platforms, for the(More)