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We show that the activities of two Ets-related transcription factors required for normal eye development in Drosophila, pointed and yan, are regulated by the Ras1/MAPK pathway. The pointed gene codes for two related proteins, and we show that one form is a constitutive activator of transcription, while the activity of the other form is stimulated by the(More)
Choanoflagellates are the closest known relatives of metazoans. To discover potential molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of metazoan multicellularity, we sequenced and analysed the genome of the unicellular choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. The genome contains approximately 9,200 intron-rich genes, including a number that encode cell(More)
The Drosophila insulin receptor (dInR) regulates cell growth and proliferation through the dPI3K/dAkt pathway, which is conserved in metazoan organisms. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of the Drosophila forkhead-related transcription factor dFOXO, a key component of the insulin signaling cascade. dFOXO is phosphorylated by(More)
We have analyzed the expression pattern of transcription factor AP-2 in mouse embryos to evaluate the potential of AP-2 as a regulator during vertebrate development. A partial cDNA encoding AP-2 was isolated from a mouse embryo cDNA library and used to prepare probes to measure AP-2 mRNA levels by RNase protection and RNA in situ hybridization. Between 10.5(More)
Whole-genome sequence assemblies are now available for seven different animals, including nematode worms, mice and humans. Comparative genome analyses reveal a surprising constancy in genetic content: vertebrate genomes have only about twice the number of genes that invertebrate genomes have, and the increase is primarily due to the duplication of existing(More)
TFIID is a large multiprotein complex that initiates assembly of the transcription machinery. It is unclear how TFIID recognizes promoters in vivo when templates are nucleosome-bound. Here, it is shown that TAFII250, the largest subunit of TFIID, contains two tandem bromodomain modules that bind selectively to multiply acetylated histone H4 peptides. The(More)
The TATA box-binding protein (TBP) is an essential component of the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus in eukaryotic cells. Until recently, it was thought that the general transcriptional machinery was largely invariant and relied on a single TBP, whereas a large and diverse collection of activators and repressors were primarily responsible for(More)
Transcription factor Sp1 is a protein present in mammalian cells that binds to GC box promoter elements and selectively activates mRNA synthesis from genes that contain functional recognition sites. We have isolated a cDNA that encodes the 696 C-terminal amino acid residues of human Sp1. By expression of truncated fragments of Sp1 in E. coli, we have(More)
The insulin signaling pathway, which is conserved in evolution from flies to humans, evolved to allow a fast response to changes in nutrient availability while keeping glucose concentration constant in serum. Here we show that, both in Drosophila and mammals, insulin receptor (InR) represses its own synthesis by a feedback mechanism directed by the(More)