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The optic nerve is often affected in patients with glaucoma and multiple sclerosis. Conventional MRI can detect nerve damage, but it does not accurately assess the underlying pathologies. Mean diffusivity and diffusion anisotropy indices derived from diffusion tensor imaging have been shown to be sensitive to a variety of central nervous system white matter(More)
Emerging evidence underlines the importance of micro(mi)RNAs in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Free-circulating miRNAs were investigated in serum from MS patients compared to controls. Statistically significant decreased levels of miR-15b, miR-23a and miR-223 were observed in MS patients (p < 0.05). Results were validated and replicated in two(More)
BACKGROUND In Phase 3 double-blind trials (MS-F203 and MS-F204), dalfampridine extended release tablets 10 mg twice daily (dalfampridine-ER; prolonged-release fampridine in Europe; fampridine modified or sustained release elsewhere) improved walking speed relative to placebo in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES Evaluation of long-term(More)
OBJECTIVE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) quantifies Brownian motion of water within tissue. The goal of this study was to test whether, following a remote episode of optic neuritis (ON), breakdown of myelin and axons within the optic nerve could be detected by alterations in DTI parameters, and whether these alterations would correlate with visual loss. (More)
Axon injury/loss, demyelination and inflammation are the primary pathologies in multiple sclerosis lesions. Despite the prevailing notion that axon/neuron loss is the substrate of clinical progression of multiple sclerosis, the roles that these individual pathological processes play in multiple sclerosis progression remain to be defined. An imaging modality(More)
OBJECTIVE This study assessed the tissue integrity of major cervical cord tracts by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to determine the relationship with specific clinical functions carried by those tracts. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study of 37 patients with multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica with remote cervical cord disease. Finger(More)
The aim of this study was to establish the concurrent validity and relative and absolute reliability, define the minimal detectable change, and evaluate the floor and ceiling effects of the Four Square Step Test (FSST) in ambulant persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). Twenty-five pwMS performed the FSST on two occasions, 8.1±4.1 days apart. During the(More)
OBJECTIVE Correlation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with histochemical staining for demyelination and axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS) ex vivo human cervical spinal cords. BACKGROUND In MS, demyelination, axonal degeneration, and inflammation contribute to disease pathogenesis to variable degrees. Based upon in vivo animal studies with acute(More)
BACKGROUND B cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. A beneficial effect of B-cell depletion using rituximab has been shown, but the complete mechanism of action for this drug is unclear. OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship between T and B cells and changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemokine levels with rituximab, a(More)
CXCL13, a B-cell chemokine, has been proposed as a biomarker in a variety of conditions, some of which can mimic multiple sclerosis and can have very high levels. In this case-control study, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CXCL13 was elevated in multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and other inflammatory neurological controls compared with noninflammatory(More)