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A considerable body of evidence indicates that opiates have an important influence on midbrain dopaminergic neurons. However, little data exist concerning the effects of opiates on the activity of single dopaminergic neurons, particularly the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area. Firing rates of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons were recorded(More)
Proteolytic fragments generated by ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs)-mediated cleavage of the aggregating chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, brevican, have been identified, but not localized in the CNS. The purpose of this study, using kainate-induced CNS lesion, was to examine the spatial and quantitative relationship(More)
A common feature of drugs of abuse is their ability to increase extracellular dopamine levels in key brain circuits. The actions of dopamine within these circuits are thought to be important in reward and addiction-related behaviors. Current theories of addiction also posit a central role for corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and an interaction between(More)
Drug addiction is a major public health issue worldwide. The persistence of drug craving coupled with the known recruitment of learning and memory centers in the brain has led investigators to hypothesize that the alterations in glutamatergic synaptic efficacy brought on by synaptic plasticity may play key roles in the addiction process. Here we review the(More)
We have utilized a guinea pig in vitro brain slice preparation of the medial septum (MS) and the vertical and horizontal limbs of the nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca (nDBB) to identify and classify different cell types within cholinergic nuclei. Utilizing a double-labeling technique which pairs intracellular injection of the fluorescent dye Lucifer(More)
A growing literature suggests that catecholamines and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) interact in a serial manner to activate the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) to drive stress- or cue-induced drug- and alcohol-seeking behaviors. Data suggest that these behaviors are driven in part by BNST projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA).(More)
Acute treatment with (+-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) at high doses (10 and 30 mg/kg, IP), but not lower doses increased locomotor activity in male rats. MDMA did not consistently produce any other stereotyped behaviors at any dose. Dopamine (DA) turnover rate as estimated by the ratio of brain tissue levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid(More)
Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) with associated brain abnormalities are a group of disorders characterized by muscular dystrophy and brain and eye abnormalities that are frequently caused by mutations in known or putative glycotransferases involved in protein O-mannosyl glycosylation. Previous work identified α-dystroglycan as the major substrate for(More)
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and its adrenergic input are key components in stress-induced reinstatement and maintenance of drug use. Intra-BNST injections of either beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) antagonists or alpha2-adrenergic receptor (alpha2-AR) agonists can inhibit footshock-induced reinstatement and maintenance of cocaine- and(More)
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is expressed in the brainstem and vagal afferent nerves and regulates a number of aspects of gastrointestinal function. Here we show that the receptor is also diffusely expressed in cells of the gastrointestinal system, from stomach to descending colon. Furthermore, MC4R is the second most highly enriched GPCR in peptide(More)