Robert T. Cook

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Chronic alcohol abuse exacts a major social and medical toll in the United States and other Western countries. One of the least appreciated medical complications of alcohol abuse is altered immune regulation leading to immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. The consequences of the immunodeficiency include increased susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia,(More)
Previous studies have shown that T cells from human alcoholics overexpress activation or memory markers such as human leukocyte antigen-DR, CD45RO, CD57, and CD11b and may have reduced levels of CD62L. In those studies, we demonstrated that the increased CD57(+) T cell population rapidly produces interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha,(More)
Chronic alcoholics are frequently immunodeficient, have polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia, and often have autoantibodies. Recent work in other diseases has shown that functional distinctions of possible relevance to autoimmunity and immunodeficiency can be found among the B cell subsets defined by differential expression of the surface markers CD5 and(More)
Alcoholics admitted to the hospital solely for detoxication have been studied by flow cytometry to evaluate changes in the surface markers of peripheral blood leukocytes. As we have shown previously, such patients have an elevated percentage of CD8hi lymphocytes that are HLA DR+; we now demonstrate that they also have striking alterations in the(More)
Animal models have clearly established that ethanol exposure can deplete neurons in the developing nervous system. However, the mechanism by which ethanol reduces cell number is unclear. In our study, cultures of pheochromocytoma cells, a neuronal-like cell line, were maintained in media, which supported cell proliferation. Although cell numbers continued(More)
Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as those with certain viral infections, and patients who are transplant recipients or who have certain hematologic malignancies have been observed to have CD57+ T cell expansion in both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets. We have reported previously that alcoholic(More)
This study examined the effects of alcohol exposure on the viability of cerebellar granule cells in culture. Continuous alcohol exposure, starting 1 day after the cultures were established, significantly reduced granule cell numbers, even with a single day of exposure to an alcohol concentration as low as 100 mg/dl. The depletion of cerebellar granule cells(More)
Direct and indirect evidence indicates that T cells are altered in alcoholics. The most commonly reported changes under direct examination have been consistent with an increased level of activation as reflected by shifts in the ratio of common leukocyte antigen isoforms expressed at the cell surface, by increases in the expression of class II antigen, or by(More)
BACKGROUND As initiators of immune responses, dendritic cells (DCs) are required for antigen (Ag)-specific activation of naïve T cells in the defense against infectious agents. The increased susceptibility to and severity of infection seen in chronic alcoholics could be because of impaired DCs initiation of naïve T-cell responses. Specifically, these DCs(More)
Results from previous studies from our laboratory have shown that T cells obtained from the spleens of C57BL/6 mice that consumed ethanol chronically have increased expression of activation markers and increased second signal-independent production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). We now report that in vitro-activated CD11b(+) splenocytes obtained from(More)