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Surface proteins in gram-positive bacteria are frequently required for virulence, and many are attached to the cell wall by sortase enzymes. Bacteria frequently encode more than one sortase enzyme and an even larger number of potential sortase substrates that possess an LPXTG-type cell wall sorting signal. In order to elucidate the sorting pathways present(More)
During infections the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus procures the essential nutrient iron from its host using iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins, which scavenge heme bound iron from host hemoproteins. Four Isd proteins are displayed in the cell wall, where they function as receptors for host proteins and heme. Each of the receptors contains(More)
UNLABELLED Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication requires reverse transcription of its RNA genome into a double-stranded cDNA copy, which is then integrated into the host cell chromosome. The essential steps of reverse transcription and integration are catalyzed by the viral enzymes reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN),(More)
The AT-rich interaction domain (ARID) is a DNA-binding module found in many eukaryotic transcription factors. Using NMR spectroscopy, we have determined the first ever three-dimensional structure of an ARID--DNA complex (mol. wt 25.7 kDa) formed by Dead ringer from Drosophila melanogaster. ARIDs recognize DNA through a novel mechanism involving major groove(More)
The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins to scavenge the essential nutrient iron from host hemoproteins. The IsdH protein (also known as HarA) is a receptor for hemoglobin (Hb), haptoglobin (Hp), and the Hb-Hp complex. It contains three NEAT (NEAr Transporter) domains: IsdH(N1), IsdH(N2), and IsdH(N3). Here(More)
Staphylococcus aureus scavenges heme-iron from host hemoproteins using iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins. IsdC is the central conduit through which heme is passed across the cell wall and binds this molecule using a NEAr Transporter (NEAT) domain. NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of IsdC in complex with a heme analog,(More)
Many virulence factors in gram-positive bacteria are covalently anchored to the cell-wall peptidoglycan by sortase enzymes, a group of widely distributed cysteine transpeptidases. The Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A protein (SrtA) is the archetypal member of the Sortase family and is activated by Ca2+, an adaptation that may facilitate host colonization as(More)
Heterobivalent tyrosine recombinases play a prominent role in numerous bacteriophage and transposon recombination systems. Their enzymatic activities are frequently regulated at a structural level by excisionase factors, which alter the ability of the recombinase to assemble into higher-order recombinogenic nucleoprotein structures. The Tn916 conjugative(More)
Staphylococcus aureus causes life-threatening disease in humans. The S. aureus surface protein iron-regulated surface determinant H (IsdH) binds to mammalian hemoglobin (Hb) and extracts heme as a source of iron, which is an essential nutrient for the bacteria. However, the process of heme transfer from Hb is poorly understood. We have determined the(More)
Iron is an essential nutrient that is required for the growth of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In cell cultures, this microbe secretes hemin/hemoglobin-binding protein 2 (Hbp2; Lmo2185) protein, which has been proposed to function as a hemophore that scavenges heme from the environment. Based on its primary sequence, Hbp2 contains three(More)