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Technological progress in integrated, low-power, CMOS communication devices and sensors makes a rich design space of networked sensors viable. They can be deeply embedded in the physical world and spread throughout our environment like smart dust. The missing elements are an overall system architecture and a methodology for systematic advance. To this end,(More)
We present <i>Telos</i>, an ultra low power wireless sensor module ("mote") for research and experimentation. Telos is the latest in a line of motes developed by UC Berkeley to enable wireless sensor network (WSN) research. It is a new mote design built from scratch based on experiences with previous mote generations. Telos' new design consists of three(More)
We provide an in-depth study of applying wireless sensor networks to real-world habitat monitoring. A set of system design requirements are developed that cover the hardware design of the nodes, the design of the sensor network, and the capabilities for remote data access and management. A system architecture is proposed to address these requirements for(More)
Habitat and environmental monitoring is a driving application for wireless sensor networks. We present an analysis of data from a second generation sensor networks deployed during the summer and autumn of 2003. During a 4 month deployment, these networks, consisting of 150 devices, produced unique datasets for both systems and biological analysis. This(More)
We show how the database community's notion of a generic query interface for data aggregation can be applied to ad-hoc networks of sensor devices. As has been noted in the sensor network literature, aggregation is important as a data-reduction tool; networking approaches, however, have focused on application specific solutions, whereas our in-network(More)
The constraints of sensor networks, an emerging area of network research, require new approaches in system design. We study the evolution of abstractions and techniques in TinyOS, a popular sensor network operating system. Examining CVS repositories of several research institutions that use TinyOS, we trace three areas of development: single-hop networking,(More)
Habitat monitoring is an important driving application for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Although researchers anticipate some challenges arising in the real-world deployments of sensor networks, a number of problems can be discovered only through experience. This paper evaluates a sensor network system described in an earlier work and presents a set of(More)
As sensor networks edge closer towards wide-spread deployment, security issues become a central concern. So far, much research has focused on making sensor networks feasible and useful, and has not concentrated on security. We present a suite of security building blocks optimized for resource-constrained environments and wireless communication. SPINS has(More)